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Activity of medicinal plant extracts against hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

510 Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Volume 11 Number 6, June 2005 9. Arav-Boger R, Assia A, Spirer Z, Bujanover Y, Reif S.
Cholestatic hepatitis as a main manifestation of Mycoplas-ma pneumoniae infection. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1995;21: 459–460.
10. Hiew TM, Tan AM, Ong EK, Ho L. Unusual manifesta- tions of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in children. Sin- Activity of medicinal plant extracts against hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant 11. Gru¨llich C, Baumert TF, Blum HE. Acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection presenting as cholestatic hepatitis.
J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41: 514–515.
12. Kountouras D, Deutsch M, Emmanuel T, Georgiadis G, Koskinas J. Fulminant Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, with multi-organ involvement: a case report. Eur J Intern Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai, Songkla, 13. Daxboeck F, Brunner G, Popper H, et al. A case of lung transplantation following Mycoplasma pneumoniaeinfection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2002; 21: 318–322.
14. Leen C, Ling S. Mycoplasma infection and Kawasaki dis- ease. Arch Dis Child 1996; 75: 266–267.
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of ten traditional 15. Narita M, Yamada S, Nakayama T, Sawada H, Nakajima Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their M, Sageshima S. Two cases of lymphadenopathy withliver dysfunction due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection ability to inhibit 35 hospital isolates of methicillin- with mycoplasmal bacteraemia without pneumonia.
resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nine medicinal plants displayed activity against all 16. Jansson E, Wegelius R, Visakorpi JK. Chronic active isolates tested. Ethanolic extracts of Garcinia hepatitis and concomitant mycoplasma infection. Lancet mangostana, Punica granatum and Quercus infectoria were most effective, with MICs for MRSA isolates 17. Brown BA, Wallace RJ. Griffith DE, Girard W. Clarithro- mycin-induced hepatotoxicity. Clin Infect Dis 1995; 20: of 0.05–0.4, 0.2–0.4 and 0.2–0.4 mg ⁄ mL, respect- ively, and for S. aureus ATCC 25923 of 0.1, 0.2 and 18. Fox JC, Szykowski RS, Sanderson SO, Levine RA.
0.1 mg ⁄ mL, respectively. MBCs for MRSA iso- Progressive cholestatic liver disease associated with lates were 0.1–0.4, 1.6–3.2 and 0.4–1.6 mg ⁄ mL, clarithromycin treatment. J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 42: 676– and for S. aureus ATCC 25923 were 0.4, 3.2 and Original Submission: 23 August 2004; Revised Sub-mission: 12 November 2004; Accepted: 27 December2004 Clin Microbiol Infect 2005; 11: 510–51210.1111/j.1469-0691.2005.01104.x The investigation of traditionally used plants forbiologically active extracts has been well-docu-mented. Recent studies [1–12] have revealed thatmedicinal plants from various parts of the worldcan provide a rich source of antibacterial activ-ities. In Thailand, many plant species have beenused widely to cure infectious diseases. Such Corresponding author and reprint requests: S. P. Vora-vuthikunchai, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science,Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai, Songkla 90112, ThailandE-mail: supayang.v@psu.ac.th Ó 2005 Copyright by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, CMI, 11, 493–512 plants are available locally, are inexpensive, and have become increasingly popular. The extracts, 14 (87.5%) extracts of nine plant species aim of the present study was to screen plant had activity against the 35 MRSA isolates tested extracts that have been shown earlier to have (Table 1). Only extracts of Tamarindus indica were antibacterial activity [4,5] against hospital iso- inactive against all isolates. The inhibition zones lates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 6 to 22 mm, but there were signifi- cant differences in the inhibition zones produced Plants were collected and identified by Thai by aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the same herbalists, and specimens were deposited at the plant species. Significant antibacterial effects, Herbarium of Prince of Songkla University, Thai- expressed as MICs and MBCs, of crude extracts land. Preparation of the plant extracts used in this against the 35 isolates of MRSA are listed in investigation was as described previously [4,5].
Table 2. Ethanolic extracts of Garcinia mangostana Aqueous extracts were dissolved in water, while were among the most active against the MRSA ethanolic extracts were dissolved in dime- isolates, with MICs and MBCs of 0.05–0.4 and thylsulphoxide before use. Thirty-five clinical 0.1–0.4 mg ⁄ mL, respectively. Aqueous and etha- isolates of MRSA (PSU 0201–PSU 0235) were nolic extracts of Quercus infectoria also showed kindly provided by Hatyai Hospital, Songkla, good activity against all MRSA isolates, with Thailand. S. aureus ATCC 25923 was used as a MICs and MBCs of 0.2–0.4 and 0.4–1.6 mg ⁄ mL, Sterile 5-mm-diameter filter paper disks (What- In conclusion, this preliminary evaluation indi- cated that certain medicinal plants, especially soaked with 10 lL of extract residue, and diluted G. mangostana and Q. infectoria, possessed signifi- in the corresponding solvent to a concentration of cant activity against MRSA isolates. This activity 250 mg ⁄ mL; thus each disk contained 2.5 mg of may be indicative of the presence of metabolic residue. Both wet and dry (dried at 37°C over- toxins or broad-spectrum antibacterial com- night) disks were placed on the surface of Muel- pounds. Of the medicinal plants investigated in ler–Hinton agar (MHA; Difco, Le Pont-De-Claix, this study, G. mangostana and Punica granatum are France) plates seeded with c. 108 CFU of the known to possess high amounts of tannin, and the tested isolates grown overnight in Trypticase antimicrobial property of this substance is well- Soy broth (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK). Antibac-terial activity was evaluated by measuring the Table 1. Antibacterial activity of crude medicinal plant diameter of the inhibition zone. Each experi- extracts against isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylo- ment was performed in triplicate and the mean of the diameters of the inhibition zones was Mean ± standard error inhibition zone (mm) A modified agar dilution method with milli- pore filters [13] was used to determine the MICs of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of medicinal plants that produced inhibition zones. For each bacterial strain, 1 lL of culture (containing c. 104 CFU) was applied to a millipore filter on MHA supplemented with the medicinal plant extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 250 mg ⁄ mL. The plates were incubated at 35°C for 18 h. Experiments were performed in tripli- cate and the results were expressed as the lowest concentration of plant extract that produced complete suppression of colony growth. MBCs were determined with the extracts that gave significant inhibition by removing the millipore filter and placing it on a fresh MHA plate.
aDry disk; bwet disk.
ND, not done.
Ó 2005 Copyright by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, CMI, 11, 493–512 512 Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Volume 11 Number 6, June 2005 lates of methicillin-resistant Staphy-lococcus aureus (MRSA) known. However, the present study is the first antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from report of the activity of extracts from Q. infectoria peptic ulcers. Clin Microbiol Infect 2004; 10(suppl 1): 334.
4. Voravuthikunchai SP, Popaya W, Supawita T. Antibacte- against MRSA. The results presented in this rial activity of crude extracts of medicinal plants used in report suggest that this plant extract should be Thailand against pathogenic bacteria. Ethnopharmacologia analysed further, as it might provide a new compound effective against multiresistant S. au- 5. Voravuthikunchai SP, Lortheeranuwat A, Ninrprom T, reus infections. Such simple and inexpensive Popaya W, Pongpaichit S, Supawita T. Effective medicinalplants against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: alternatives to conventional treatment of bacterial H7. J Ethnopharmacol 2004; 94: 49–54.
infections may be worthy of further rigorous 6. Chariandy CM, Seaforth CE, Phelps RH, Pollard GV, investigation. It has already been reported that tea Khambay BP. Screening of medicinal plants from Trinidad leaf extract gives results equivalent to conven- and Tobago for antimicrobial and insecticidal properties.
J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 64: 265–270.
tional antibiotics in the therapy of impetigo 7. Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin contagiosa [14], while Bassett et al. [15] have reported favourable results with tea-tree oil in 8. Kudi AC, Umoh JU, Eduvie LO, Guffu J. Screening of the treatment of acne. It can be speculated that Q.
some Nigerian medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.
infectoria extract may be effective in the form of a J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 67: 225–228.
9. Palombo EA, Semple SJ. Antibacterial activity of tradi- nasal ointment or body wash, but much more tional Australian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2001; 10. Semple SJ, Reynolds GD, O’Leary MC, Flower RLP.
Screening of Australian medicinal plants for antiviral activity. J Ethnopharmacol 1998; 60: 163–172.
11. Taylor RSL, Manamdhar NP, Towers GHN. Screening of This study was presented in part at the 12th European selected medicinal plants of Nepal for antimicrobial Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, activities. J Ethnopharmacol 1995; 546: 153–159.
12. Taylor RSL, Manamdhar NP, Hudson JB, Towers GHN.
Antiviral activities of Nepalese medicinal plants. J Ethno-pharmacol 1996; 52: 157–163.
13. Lorian V. Antibiotics in laboratory medicines, 4th edn. Balti- 1. Voravuthikunchai SP, Lortheeranuwat A, Ninrprom T, Popaya W, Pongpaichit S, Supawita T. Antibacterial 14. Sharquie KE, Al-Turfi IA, Al-Saloum SM. The antibacterial activity of tea in vitro and in vivo (in patients with impetigo ohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: H7. Clin Microbiol contagiosa). J Dermatol 2000; 27: 706–710.
15. Bassett IB, Pannowitz DL, Barnetson RS. A comparative 2. Voravuthikunchai SP, Kitpipit L. Activities of crude extracts study of tea-tree oil versus benzylperoxide in the treat- of Thai medicinal plants on methicillin-resistant Staphylo- ment of acne. Med J Aust 1990; 153: 455–458.
coccus aureus. Clin Microbiol Infect 2003; 9(suppl 1): 236.
3. Voravuthikunchai SP, Brusentsev S, O’Rourke J, Mitchell H. Efficacy of crude extracts of Thai medicinal plants on Ó 2005 Copyright by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, CMI, 11, 493–512

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