CHAPTER 15 Nervous System Drugs Nonphenothiazine Half-life: Onset: Duration:
IM: 15–30 min IM: 30–45 min IM: 4–8 h
IM: Decanoate IM: Decanoate IM: Decanoate
behavioral problems in children, short-term treatment of hyperactivity in children; treatment of infantile autism, Huntington’s chorea, nausea/vomiting associated with cancer therapy. Pregnancy Pharmacokinetic: PB: 80–90%; category: C
readily absorbed from GI tract;extensively metabolizedin liver,excreted in urine; not removedby hemodialysis.
• Competitively blocks postsynaptic dopamine receptors, interrupts
impulse movement and increases turnover of braindopamine,producing tranquilizing effect. Strong extrapyramidal,antiemetic effects, weak anticholinergic, sedative effects.
• PO: 0.5–5 mg 2–3 times/day. Maximum 100 mg/day.
• IM (lactate) 2–5 mg q4–8 h as needed.
• IM (decanoate) 10–15 times stabilized oral dose given at
• IV: only lactate is given IV; IV push at rate of 5 mg/min; infuse
piggy back over 30 min; up to 25 mg/hr has been used titratedto patient response.
• Obtain medical and drug history.
• Assess mental status, cardiac, eye, and respiratory disorders
CHAPTER 15 Nervous System Drugs Nonphenothiazine
• PO: give without regarad to meals.
• PO: scored tablets may be crushed.
• Prepare Decanoate IM injection with 21 gauge needle; do not
exceed maximum volume of 3 ml per IM site; inject slowly,deep IM into upper outer quardant of gluteus maximus.
• IV may given undiluted; flush with at least 2 mL 0.9% NaCl
before and after administration; may add to 30–50 mL mostsolutions (D5W preferred).
• IM: Patient must remain recumbent for 30–60 min in head-low
position with legs raised to minimize hypotensive effect.
• Monitor blood pressure for hypotension.
• Assess for extrapyramidal symptoms.
• Monitor WBC, differential count for blood dyscrasias.
• Monitor for fine tongue movement (may be early sign of
• Place on suicide precautions if necessary.
• Coma, alcohol ingestion, Parkinson’s disease, thyrotoxicosis.
• Caution: impaired respiratory/hepatic/cardiovascular function,
alcohol withdrawal, history of seizures, urinary retention,glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, elderly.
• Frequent: blurred vision, constipation, orthostatic hypotension,
dry mouth, swelling or soreness of female breasts, peripheraledema.
• Occasional: allergic reaction, difficulty urinating, decreased
thirst, dizziness, decreased sexual ability, drowsiness, nausea,vomiting, photosensitivity, lethargy.
• Extrapyramidal symptoms appear to be dose related and may be
noted in first few days of therapy; Marked drowsiness andlethargy, excessive salivation, fixed stare may be mild to severein intensity. Less frequently seen are severe akathisia and acutedystonias. Tardive dyskinesia may occur with long-term therapyand is more common in female geriatric patients. This may beirreversible. Abrupt withdrawal following long-term therapymay provoke transient dyskinesia signs.
• Toxic blood serum level >1 mcg/mL. CHAPTER 15 Nervous System Drugs Nonphenothiazine
• May take up to 6 weeks or longer to achieve full clinical effect
• Do not consume alcohol or other CNS depressants such as
• Do not abruptly discontinue the drug.
• Read labels on OTC and herbal preparations. Some are
contraindicated when taking antipsychotics.
• Advise health care provider if you smoke. The dose may
need to be adjusted as smoking increases metabolism of some antipsychotics.
• Maintain good oral hygiene by frequent brushing and flossing.
• Effects of antipsychotics on the fetus are unknown; discuss
family planning with health care provider.
• Drug passes into breast milk which could cause drowsiness and
• Maintain routine follow-up appointments with health care
• Obtain laboratory tests as scheduled.
• Wear an ID bracelet indicating medication taken.
• Tolerance to sedative effect develops over a period of days
• Avoid potentially dangerous situations such as driving until
• Be aware of EPS and report them immediately to provider.
• Avoid direct sunlight or use a sun block and protective clothing.
• Avoid arising from a lying or sitting position quickly as
strands of the repeat region (Fig. 1). In-deed, Volpe et al. report in this issue thattranscripts are produced from both strandsof the dh repeat, and these transcripts mark-edly increase in abundance in S. pombe mutants of dcr1 , the Dicer homolog, and ago1 , the Argonaute homolog ( 7 ). Most ofour centromeric small RNAs cluster withinor near these transcripts, suggesting thatRNAs produce
FDA Public Health Advisory Suicidality in Children and Adolescents Being This information is out-of-date. For current information on antidepraessant drugs, please see http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/antidepressants/default.htm Today the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) directed manufacturers of all antidepressant drugs to revise the labeling for their products to include a boxed warning and