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Dynamics and longevity of the
Designing a dissimilatory iron
magmatic system of Furnas volcano,
reducer. Reconstitution of the Fe(III)-
São Miguel, Azores
reducing electron transport chain of
GERTISSER , J. L. GASPAR , J. M. PACHECO , Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in
Escherichia coli
1School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Earth GESCHER , C. CORDOVA-ARDY AND A. SPORMANN Sciences and Geography, Keele University, Keele, ST5 Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford 2Centro de Vulcanologia e Avaliação de Riscos Geológicos, University, Stanford, USA ( Universidade dos Açores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Universitaet Freiburg, Institut fuer Mikrobiologie, Freiburg, Germany ( 3Department of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Milton Shewanella oneidensis uses several electron acceptors to support anaerobic respiration including soluble species and Furnas is the easternmost of the three active trachytic remarkably insoluble species such as iron(III) and central volcanoes on the island of São Miguel, Azores. It is manganese(IV) oxides. The pathway of electron flow from the regarded as one of the most active and dangerous volcanoes in cytoplasmic membrane to the outer membrane remains elusive the Azores archipelago owing to a population of several after years of research with different Shewanella species. We thousand people living within the caldera and in the immediate are pursuing a novel approach to identify the essential vicinity of the volcanic complex. Throughout its history, components of the electron transport chain by reconstituting volcanic activity at Furnas has been essentially explosive but the pathway for iron(III) reduction by S. oneidensis in eruptive styles have varied from mild effusive activity to at Escherichia coli. We generated a suitable E. coli strain as a least two caldera-forming eruptions ~30,000 and 12,000- platform for this work and integrated the central electron transfer protein, CymA into the genome. CymA allows for During the past 5,000 years, ten explosive eruptions electron transfer from the cytoplasmic membrane to the occurred at Furnas, which produced a total of ~0.9 km3 (DRE) periplasmic space in Shewanella species. We showed (i) that of fairly homogeneous trachytic magma. The deposits of these the expressed CymA activity is growth supporting for E. coli, eruptions are collectively referred to as Furnas A-J members (ii) that CymA couples directly to the soluble fumarate of the Upper Furnas Group [1,2]. The latest eruption (Furnas reductase of S. oneidensis, and (iii) that CymA in vitro J) occurred after the settlement of the Azores archipelago in facilitates reduction of ferric citrate and the soluble quinone 1630 AD. Eruptions of the Upper Furnas Group were mainly analog AQDS. Our generated E. coli strain is a dissimilatory characterised by alternating episodes of magmatic and iron reducer in that it can use ferric-NTA as a terminal phreatomagmatic activity producing deposits of interbedded electron acceptor during growth with glycerol as the sole ash and lapilli that overlie the widespread Fogo A deposit carbon and electron source. We could furthermore show from adjacent Fogo volcano [3]. At least three of these through in vitro assays that a direct interaction between CymA eruptions, namely Furnas E, Furnas I and the 1630 AD event and the periplasmic decaheme cytochrome MtrA from S. (Furnas J), were accompanied by trachyte dome extrusion in To develop a fuller understanding of the underlying dynamics of the magma system of Furnas, we have
investigated the whole-rock major and trace element
geochemistry of the products of the Upper Furnas Group and
the older caldera-forming events. These data are discussed
together with U-Th-Ra isotopic disequilibria obtained on
trachyte pumice clasts and lavas to place constraints on the
dynamics and longevity of the magma system of Furnas.
[1] Guest et al. (1999), J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 92, 1-29
[2] Booth et al. (1978), Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London 288,
[3] Cole et al. (1999), J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 92, 39-53.



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