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International Journal of Ethnomedicine and Pharmacological Research (2013), Vol.1, Issue 2, P. 151-154 ISSN No. 2347 - 2901 (Print)
2347 - 291X (Online)
International Journal of
Ethnomedicine and Pharmacological Research
2013 by the International Journal of Ethnomedicine and Pharmacological Research Evaluation of Acalypha fruticosa and Andrographis peniculata alkaloid extract as a
synergist against larvae of the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus

M.Kalpana, T.Thenmozhi, G.Suganya, G.Janet Joshiba, P.Theriappan and P. Dhasarathan
Department of Biotechnology, Prathyusha Institute of Technology and Management, Aranvoyalkuppam,Poonamallee-Tiruvallur road, tiruvallur - 602025. Tamilnadu, India.
History of Article:
The efficancy of synthetic insecticides in vector control has been reduced. This leads to the search of insecticides of botanical origin which can serve as a suitable alternative biocontrol technique. Many plants have been reported to have mosqitocidal activity but only few have been used in the field. Since the plants are not clearly characterized and active principles for mosquitocidal activity are not determined properly. There is a need for the development of new botanical insecticids. In our present work Acalypa fruricosa and Andrographis peniculata as thoroughly studied Keywards: Larvicidal, Acalypha fruticosa, Andrographis peniculata;
Synergetic activity studied both in current effective pesticides and phytochemicals provides a power ful tool the development of insect control various reasons. People in all over the world suffer strategies (Bernard and Philogene 1993). Alkaloid from malaria, dengue, yellow fever, encephalitis, like nicotine anabasin methyl anabasin and lupinine Filariasis which was caused by mosquitoes. A isolated from Russian weed also reported for mosquito has ability to act as vector pathogens and mosquito control (Sukumar et al., 1993). The cause these diseases (WHO 1998, 1997; Shope primary aim of the current study evaluates the 1997). Hence an integrated vector control programne synergistic action of Indian medicinal plants against is essential. Though chemical control act as effective culex quinguefasciatus, the filarial vector of india it can be a tempory solution to the outbreak of diseases and the over use of chemical control oftenleads to resistance to these chemicals.This situationbrings attention to the researchers to focus on the MATERIALS AND METHODS
development of botanical insecticides. Insecticidalactivity of different plants has been studied by many Collection of Plant material
scientists in different parts of the world. Phytoextracts have been successfully tested for various biocontrol programs (Markouk et al., 2000; Jeyabalan et al., 2003; Sharma et al., 2004; Medicinal Plant Garden at Sri Sairam Siddha Choochote et al.,2004; Sharma et al., 2006). Crude Medical College and Research Centre, West solvent extract of different parts of plant essential oil or their chromatographic fractions and their various institution of Government of Tamil nadu and the bioactivity against different stages of malarial Deparment of AYUSH, Government of India.
vectors has been studied (Mittal and subbaro 2013).
International Journal of Ethnomedicine and Pharmacological Research (2013), Vol.1, Issue 2, P. 151-154 Preparation of extracts
calculated by Abbot’s formula (Abbot 1925) on The aerial parts of 2 plants were dried in the mortality if it ranged from 5 to 20% in controls: shade, cut up and then ground in a homogenizer. Thepowder material from each species was macerated Corrected % mortality= [(T-C)]/ (100- C)] *100 with 75% ethanol at room temperature for 3 days and Where T is the percent mortality in the test then suction filtered through a Buchner funnel. The concentration and C is the percent mortality in the solvent was removed by rotary evaporation under reduced pressure at a temperature below 45oC. Theresulting crude ethanolic extracts were kept at –20oC Synergistic factor (Kalayanasundaram & until screening for their larvicidal activity against Ae. Das 1985) for mixed formulation experiments were aegypti. The powder from each plant which showed an LC50 value of less than 50 mg/l was extracted in a Synergistic factor (SF) = toxicity of insecticide Soxhlet extractor with PE, and then with MeOH. The (alone) /toxicity of insecticide with plant extract
solutions were concentrated under reduced pressure,below 45oC, to dryness. The resulting crude PE and A value of SF > 1 indicates synergism and SF < 1 MeOH extracts were kept at -20oC until testing for RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Larvicidal test
Preliminary screening
Methods for testing larvicidal action of the crude extracts were slightly modified from those of peniculata plant alkaloid extracts exhibited high World Health Organization (WHO, 1996). A stock toxicity with a more than 60% mortality rate at the solution was prepared by dissolving a known amount fourth instar larvae stage in a concentration of of the crude extract in an appropriate solvent and 20μl/ml at the 48 h after treatment. point. Solanum stored in a refrigerator at 15oC. Twenty healthy, late villosum berry extract signify that the mortality rates 3rd-4th instar larvae were introduced into each at a 0.5% concentration were highest with all testing cup (sterilized plastic drinking cup of 150 ml concentrations of the aqueous extracts tested for capacity), which contained 100 ml of dechlorinated larval mortality and it was considerably higher tap water. A measured volume of stock solution was (p<0.05) than the mortality rates at different added to obtain the desired concentrations.
concentration of aqueous plant extract at 24, 48 and 72 hours of exposure (Nandita et al., 2008).
seven concentrations, each with 5 replicates, with afinal total number of 100 larvae for each Larvicidal activity of Acalypha fruticosa and
concentration. Each batch of replicates contained one Andrographis peniculata
control of 100 ml of water alone and another of 100ml of water containing a volume of solvent The bioefficacy of leaf extracts against Cx. corresponding to the maximum volume of extract Quinquefasciatus larvae was shown in Table 1.
tested. As very few larvae succumbed within 24 S.villosum exhibited potential biocontrol agent aginst hours of exposure to the test solutions, mortality was S.aegypti (Nandita Chowdhury et al., 2010). The recorded after 48 hour of exposure, during which no extract or isolated bioactive phytochemical from the food was offered to the larvae. The mortalities of plant could be used in stagnant water bodies which mosquito larvae were recorded if moribund larvae were incapable of rising to the surface or of showing the characteristic diving reaction when the water wasdisturbed or they showed discoloration, unnatural Bioassay of mixed formulations
position or rigor. The LC50 was determined by aProbit analysis program (Finney, 1971). Control mortality was accounted for by the formula of Abbott activities against the larvae of all the tested mosquito species. The regression parameters of probit analysisand LC50 for mortality of the larvae were presented Data analysis of mortality response
in Table 2. The results showed that among all thethree species tested, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the Mortality data produced for phytoextracts most sensitive with LC50. The results of the bioassay of different ratios of alkaoid extract of Acalypha formulations were analyzed by Probit Analysis fruticosa and Andrographis peniculata combined (Finney 1971). The corrected percent mortality was against Cx. Quinquefasciatus larvae. Demonstatedthat at the ratio 1:1 LC50 were 0.0059 and 0.0045 International Journal of Ethnomedicine and Pharmacological Research (2013), Vol.1, Issue 2, P. 151-154 Table-1. Efficacy of alkaloid extracts of Acalypha fruticosa and Andrographis peniculata against larvae of
Culex quinquefasciatus
Table-2. Combinatorial bioassay of cypermethrin (C), Acalypha fruticosa and Andrographis peniculata
alkaloid extract against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus
*Not significantly different from 1 P<0.05 ppm after 24 and 48 h of revelation, correspondinglythe LC50 values for the ratio 1:2 of alkaoid extract of CONCLUSION
Acalypha fruticosa and Andrographis peniculata were 0.0089 and 0.0081 ppm after 24 and 48 h of Andrographis peniculata offers promised as a treatment, respectively and for the ratio of 1:3 were 0.0097 and 0.0088 ppm. after 24 and 48 h of quinquefasciatus mainly in its markedly larvicidal treatment, and the ratio of 1:4 were 0.0114 and 0.109 ppm. All fractions of S. xanthocarpum demonstrated phytochemical from the plant could be used in appreciable larvicidal activity after 24 and 48 h post stagnant water bodies which are known to be the treatment. The alkaloid extract showed greater breeding grounds for mosquitoes. However, further larvicidal activity. Corbel et al., 2003 identified studies on the identification of the active principals Positive synergism between permethrin and propoxur involved and their mode of action and field trials are against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. When the binary needed to recommend Acalypha fruticosa and mixture was applied, the LC50 co-toxicity coefficient Andrographis peniculata as an anti-mosquito product of 2.2 indicated synergism between the two used to combat and protect from vector in a control insecticides. Comparison of the observed and interaction across a wide range of concentrations, theeffect being inversely proportional to mixtureconcentration.
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