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International Journal of Recent Trends in Science And Technology, ISSN 2277-2812 E-ISSN 2249-
Comparative Study of Clinical Efficacy and
Adverse Drug Reactions Produced by Enalapril and
Ramipril in Patients of Moderate Hypertension
Santosh C. Gursale1*, Mohankrishna Ghanta2, Narayan P. Burte3, Sudheer Kumar4
1Professor and Head Department of Pharmacology, I.M.S.R. Mayani, Satara, Maharashtra, INDIA.
3Professor and Head, 2,4MSc. P.G. Student, Department of Pharmacology, M.N.R. Medical College,
: Hypertension is one of the leading causes of global burden of disease. Approximately
7.6 million deaths [13-15% of total deaths] and 92 million disability-adjusted life years worldwide were
attributable to high blood pressure in 2001.Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) have a well-
established role in the management of essential hypertension.This study was prompted by the fact that a large
number of people suffer from essential hypertension and ACEIs certainly are among the most widely prescribed
agents in its treatment. It is therefore imperative that we should have maximum data on their pattern of utilization
Aims and Objective
- To observe and compare the anti-hypertensive efficacy as well as incidence of adverse
drug reactions between enalapril and ramipril.
Materials and Methods
-This prospective, comparative, open-label study included 80 patients suffering from
stage I / II essential hypertension. These patients included males and females randomized in each study Group.
Observation and Result:
In the present study, we observed that enalapril, ramiprilare effective agents in
reducing both systolic and diastolic BP throughout the study period when measured at the 15thday, 30thday,
45thday and 90th day. When efficacy was compared, we found that these two drugs were equally effective in
reducing the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. A total of 25% of the patients reported some sort of adverse-
effects like cough (10%), nausea(7.5%), musculoskeletal pain(2.5%), headache (5%) and dizziness (0%) in the
enalapril treated Group A and 22.5%in the ramipril treated Group B, with noted adverse-effects like
cough(10%), headache (5%), dizziness (2.5%), nausea (5%) and musculoskeletal pain(0%).
-The antihypertensive effect of these two drugs included in the study was statistically
significant.These two drugs were equally effective in reducing the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The
incidence of nausea and musculoskeletal pain was more in enalapril treated group than ramipril group and
incidence of dizziness was more in ramipril group than enalapril Group. However, this difference in the
frequency of overall adverse-effects between the two groups was not statistically significant (P
> 0.05). Adverse
effects were tolerated by both the study Groups and hence effective antihypertensive drugs in management of
ACE-inhibitors, enalapril, hypertension, ramipril.
A new notion of rank for finite supersolvable groupsand free linear actions on products of spheresFor a finite supersolvable group G , we define the saw rank of G to be theminimum number of sections Gk − Gk− 1 of a cyclic normal series G∗ such that Gk − Gk− 1 owns an element of prime order. The axe rank of G , studied by Ray, is the minimum number of spheres in a produc
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