Travel Health Advice Leaflet
The following information will help you to stay healthy on your trip.
Please make sure you read it following on from your appointment with us.
Diseases can be caught from drinking contaminated water, or swimming in it.
Unless you know the water supply is safe where you are staying,
ONLY USE (in order of preference)
1. Boiled water2. Bottled water or canned drinks3. Water treated by a sterilising agent.
This includes ice cubes in drinks and water for cleaning your teeth
It is safer to swim in water that is well chlorinated. If you are travelling to Africa, South America or some
parts of the Caribbean, avoid swimming in fresh water lakes and streams. You can catch a parasitic
disease called schistosomiasis from such places. This disease is also known as Bilharzia. It is also wise
never to go barefoot, but to wear protective footwear when out, even on the beach. Other diseases can
be caught from sand and soil, particularly wet soil.
Contaminated food is the most common source of many diseases abroad. You can help prevent it by
following these guidelines:
ONLY EAT WELL COOKED FRESH FOOD AVOID LEFTOVERS and REHEATED FOODS
Two phrases to help you remember
ENSURE MEAT IS THOROUGHLY COOKED EAT COOKED VEGETABLES, AVOID SALADS
COOK IT, PEEL IT, OR LEAVE IT!
WHEN IN DOUBT, LEAVE IT OUT!
NEVER DRINK UNPASTEURISED MILK AVOID ICE-CREAM SHELLFISH IS A HIGH RISK FOOD AVOID BUYING FOOD FROM STREET VENDOR’S STALLS AS A GENERAL RULE
Another source of disease is alcohol! If you drink to excess, alcohol could lead you to become carefreeand ignore these precautions.
Many diseases are transmitted by what is known as the ‘faecal-oral’ route. To help prevent this, always
wash your hands with soap and clean water after going to the toilet, before eating and before handling
food. Using hand gel is another sensible option.
This is the most common illness
that you will be exposed to abroad and there is NO vaccine against it.
Diarrhoea is caused by eating and/or drinking food and water contaminated by bacteria, viruses or
parasites. Risk of illness is higher in some countries than others.
High risk areas
include North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, the Indian Subcontinent, S.E. Asia, South
America, Mexico and the Middle East.
Medium risk areas
include the northern Mediterranean, Canary Islands and the Caribbean Islands.
Low risk areas
include North America, Western Europe and Australia
You can certainly help prevent
travellers’ diarrhoea in the way you behave
- make sure you follow the
food, water and personal hygiene guidelines already given.
What is travellers’ diarrhoea?
Travellers’ diarrhoea is 3 or more loose stools in a 24 hour period often accompanied by stomach pain,
cramps and vomiting. It usually lasts 2-4 days and whilst it is not a life threatening illness, it can disrupt
your trip for several days. The main danger of the illness is dehydration
, and this, if very severe, can kill if
it is not treated. Treatment
is therefore rehydration
. In severe cases and particularly in young children
and the elderly, commercially prepared rehydration solution is extremely useful.
Travel well prepared
A good tip is to take oral rehydration solutions with you. These can be bought over the counter in a
chemist shop, available in tablet or sachet form — for example: DIORALYTE or ELECTROLADE or
(The latter is a formula containing rice powder which also helps to relieve the
diarrhoea, particularly useful in children). Prepare according to instructions. Take care regarding their
use in very small children and seek medical advice where necessary.
Anti diarrhoeal tablets
can be used for adults but should NEVER be USED in children under 4 years of
age, and only on prescription for children aged 4 to 12 years.
Commonly used tablets are IMODIUM® and LOMOTIL® or NORMALOE®.None of these tablets should ever be used if the person has a temperature or blood in the stool.
Do contact medical help if the affected person has:-
Blood in the diarrhoea
Diarrhoea for more than 48 hours (or 24 hours in children)
In some circumstances, antibiotics are used as a standby treatment for travellers’ diarrhoea. Suchmedication would not be available on the NHS in anticipation of you being ill when away and needs to beprescribed. A woman taking the oral contraceptive pill may not have full contraceptive protection if shehas had diarrhoea and vomiting. Extra precautions must be used - refer to your ‘pill’ information leaflet. Ifusing condoms, take a supply of good quality ones with you which are CE approved.
HEPATITIS B and HIV INFECTION - these diseases can be transmitted by
Blood transfusion Medical procedures with non sterile equipment Sharing of needles (e.g. tattooing, body piercing, acupuncture and drug abuse) Sexual contact — Sexually transmitted infections or STI’s are also transmitted this way
Ways to protect yourself
Only accept a blood transfusion when essential If travelling to a resource poor country, take a sterile medical kit Avoid procedures e.g. ear and body piercing, tattooing & acupuncture Avoid casual sex, especially without using condoms
Excessive alcohol can make you carefree and lead you to take risks you otherwise would not
Mosquitoes, certain types of flies, ticks and bugs can cause many different diseases. e.g. malaria, dengue
fever, yellow fever. Some bite at night, but some during daytime so protection is needed at all times.
Avoid being bitten by:
Covering up skin as much as possible if going out at night, (mosquitoes that transmit malaria bite
from dusk until dawn). Wear loose fitting clothes, long sleeves, trousers or long skirts.
Use insect repellents on exposed skin. (DEET containing products are the most effective. A content of
up to 50% DEET is recommended for tropical destinations). Clothes can be sprayed with repellentstoo or clothing specific sprays. Check suitability for children on the individual products. If usingsunscreen always apply first, followed by an insect repellent spray on top.
If room is not air conditioned, but screened, close shutters early evening and spray room with
knockdown insecticide spray. In malarious regions, if camping, or sleeping in unprotectedaccommodation, always sleep under a mosquito net (impregnated with permethrin). Avoid campingnear areas of stagnant water, these are common breeding areas for mosquitoes etc.
Electric insecticide vaporisers are very effective as long as there are no power failures!
There is no scientific evidence
that electric buzzers, savoury yeast extract, tea tree oil, bath oils,
Homeopathic and herbal medications should NEVER be used as an alternative to conventional advice
Malaria is a disease spread by mosquitoes, there is no vaccine yet available. If you are travelling to a
malarious country, the travel adviser will have given you a separate leaflet with more details, please read
it. Remember malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease. If you develop flu like symptoms,
including fever, sweats, chills, feeling unwell, headaches, muscle pains, cough, diarrhoea – then seek
medical help immediately for advice and day you’ve been abroad. This is VITAL, don’t delay.
Remember the ABCD of malaria prevention advice:
wareness of the riskB
hemoprophylaxis (taking the correct tablets)D
iagnosis (knowing the symptoms and acting quickly)
Rabies is present in many parts of the world. If a person develops rabies, death is 100% certain.
THERE ARE 3 RULES REGARDING RABIES
1. Do not touch any animal, even dogs and cats2. If you are licked on broken skin, scratched or bitten by an animal in a country which has rabies, wash
the wound thoroughly with soap and running water for 10 - 15 minutes, then apply an antisepticsolution if possible e.g. iodine or alcohol. Such precautions also apply if you are licked by the animalwith their saliva coming into contact with your eyes or inside your mouth (essentially any mucousmembranes)
Seek medical advice IMMEDIATELY
, even if you have been previously immunised, this is absolutely
Major leading causes of death in travellers abroad are due to accidents
, predominantly road traffic
accidents and swimming/water accidents. You can help prevent them by following sensible precautions
Avoid alcohol and food before swimming Never dive into water where the depth is uncertain Only swim in safe water, check currents, sharks, jellyfish etc.
Avoid alcohol when driving, especially at night Avoid hiring motorcycles and mopeds If hiring a car, rent a large one if possible, ensure the tyres, brakes and seat belts are in good
Use reliable taxi firms, know where emergency facilities are
PERSONAL SAFETY AND SECURITY
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) provide excellent information about this
including a very useful service called LOCATE which enables you to register your details of trips abroad.
They have information for many different types of travel and also advise on travel to specific destinations
in times of political unrest and natural disasters. Please go to their website for more information.
Take out adequate insurance cover for your trip. This should possibly include medical repatriation as
without it, this service is extremely expensive if needed.
If you have any pre existing medical conditions, make sure you inform the insurance
company of these details and check the small print of the policy thoroughly.
If you travel to a European Union country, make sure you have obtained an EHIC card before you
travel which takes some time to obtain. Further information about the EHIC is found at
Please note, additional travel insurance is still advised even if you have an EHIC card.
It is sensible on any long haul flight to be comfortable in your seat. Exercise your legs, feet and toes while
sitting every half an hour or so and take short walks whenever feasible. Upper body and breathing
exercises can further improve circulation. Drink plenty of water and be sensible about alcohol intake
which in excess leads to dehydration. Further information can be obtained from the websites detailed at
the end of this leaflet with more specific advice and information on travel-related deep vein thrombosis.
SUN AND HEAT
Sunburn and heat-stroke cause serious problems in travellers but in the long term can be a serious cause
of skin cancer. There is no such thing as a safe suntan, but the following advice should be taken:
PRECAUTIONARY GUIDELINES Increase sun exposure gradually, with a 20 minute limit initially.
Use sun blocks which contain both UVA and UVB protection and sufficient sun protection factor (SPF)
and a minimum of SPF 15. Children under 3 years should have a minimum of SPF 25 and babiesunder 6 months should be kept out of the sun at all times. Reapply often and always after swimmingand washing. Read manufacturer instructions
Always apply sunscreen first followed by an insect repellent spray on top Wear protective clothing – sunhats, T shirts and sunglasses etc.
Avoid going out between 11am - 3pm, when the sun’s rays are strongest Take special care of children and those with pale skin/red hair Drink extra fluids in a hot climate Be aware that alcohol can make you dehydrated
For additional information sources, please see details overleaf
Have a good, but safe and healthy trip!
Examples of interesting website addresses:
Fit for Travel
- Scottish NHS public travel site for general
advice on all aspects of travel and country specific
– look at travel health in the ‘A-Z’ section
and also travel health in the ‘Live Well’ section (these
are both different). Excellent general website also.
- Foreign & Commonwealth Office, especially useful
for safety and security and specific pages for types of
tonsible tourism. Also lookat‘LOCATE’ service
– general information for travellers
- is the Cancer research website providing
information about skin cancer and sun protection advice
Kids Travel Doc™
- a paediatric
– information specific for those with
diabetes who wish to travel – go to ‘Guide to diabetes’
then to the ‘living with diabetes’ section then go to‘travel’
from the International
Patient information leaflet Please read this information leaflet carefully before you take or use the medicine. This medicine has been prescribed for your personal use and you must not pass it on to anyone else. The medicine could be harmful to them even if they have the same symptoms as you. Keep this information leaflet - you may wish to read it again later. Doxycycline Axapharm® What i
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PIOGLITAZONE AND GLIMEPIRIDE – A UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC APPROACH Kottu P. K*., Gadad A.P. and Dandagi P. M. (Received 01 June 2012) (Accepted 12 october 2012) ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of the present work was to design a simple, accurate, economical and reproducible Uv spectrophotometric method for th