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been derived from various natural products (5,10,13,19,20).
egg solids and a mixture of mustard oil and capsaicin (1,14,15). Other repellents have activity of varying degrees, particularly denatonium benzoate (1,21), putrescent whole can be summarized from the literature cited as follows: marketing of natural and synthetic products (T crops has become an increasingly important problem (4,6,16,17). Considerable research This calls for improved protocols for testing these compounds with wild animals, cation of compounds present in plant species that prevent animals from consuming them.
formulation that repels animals, is easily applied, not phytotoxic, resists erosion and animal repellents that occur in native or domestic plant species; and to combine these in a farmers, environmentalists and citizens; that is, the damage caused by animals feeding on solve one of the most expensive, vexing and annoying problems that af formulations and to improve handling properties while reducing the cost of the product to The formulations developed in this research are more ef wetting agents and emulsifiers has also enhanced repellent activity plant extracts and commercial repellents. Ef 1996, more than 450 feeding studies with 9,000 field plots have been conducted utilizing natural conditions at East Lansing, Baldwin, the Rose Lake The browsing of animals, particularly deer and rabbits, on agricultural and ornamental Literatur
A practical formulation of an animal repellent, particularly for deer and rabbits would Abstract:
fodil extracts has required its elimination from formulations used on growing plants.
fodil, iris, catnip, peppermint, spearmint and pepper oduction:
fective than the individual extracts used at higher rates. e Review:
, further research is required to enhance the longevity of the fective repellent for animals has been conducted under fective animal repellents resulting in the testing and able 1) may optimally deter animals for a few weeks but ficient method for extraction, purification and identifi- This is also dependent upon feeding pressure. In URAL SOCIETY OF MICHIGAN
The objective of this research is to discover ective repellents have been extracted from addition, the formulations available to the public cost more than ten dollars per quart as This makes the currently available repellents economically prohibitive for MSHS TRUST FUNDED RESEARCH
possible to enhance the repellent activity of plant extracts with additives such as veg- peppermint, spearmint and catnip also have repellent activity (T phytotoxic compared to other plant extracts (T formulations containing the active fractions. or transplanted in beds. Pansies remain desirable to rabbits throughout Michigan winters.
used for a majority of the 1999 studies. Ears of field corn and boughs of white cedar thin layer chromatography where fractions obtained are in very small quantities.
bioassay procedure with corn seed is that it requires very small quantities of the test species. For example, extracts that repel deer also repel squirrels. recorded. In general, the repellents isolated have been ef 10 seeds each were placed on plastic trays arranged randomly among the scattered feed where a variance was obtained from the Michigan Department of Natural Resources to stability of the extracts and their ease of application.
addition of surfactants, additives and emulsifiers to the formulations have enhanced the extracts were formulated alone or in combination with other extracts for testing. mixture of compounds and additives that may be formulated to give an economical Results and Discussion:
Deer isolated in pens at the DNR Rose Lake At Baldwin, repellent treatments were applied to corn seeds. Seven to 10 treatments of Field assays were conducted in selected natural environments including northwestern Animals are repelled from eating some plant species. Extracts repellent to animals Materials and Methods:
After reviewing the literature, the obvious challenge is to discover a compound or ests with rabbits were conducted throughout the year using pansy plants grown in pots , wild turkeys, raccoons, blue jays and squirrels.
able 3). One of the major problems with daf This is important when screening chemicals separated by vacuum liquid or The results were similar to those shown in The percent consumed by the deer of each cedar bough or ear of corn . Each test contained up to 10 treatments arranged in three randomized ) 10-20 cm long and 7-12 cm wide, which are desired by deer The residual repellent activity of plant extracts can be enhanced by lpena County in the tuberculosis quarantine area and at Baldwin, fective for long periods, even with environmental stresses.
These tests were evaluated by estimating the feeding activity fodils, iris, catnip, peppermint, spearmint and pepper These areas attracted many wild animal species including The boughs and corn were tied to the inside of a fence fodil leaves and bulbs contain one or more active The percent corn consumed from the trays was T

Two new formulations that include clay that They were moved outside to gardens with a ables 4 and 5). Extracts from iris, pepper repellent derived from natural products that can be used year improved formulations of “Go Green” and “Go Michigan growers and homeowners have a useful repellent available.
lations that we are finally approaching a tank mixture that may be a first step in helping particularly encouraging. It is believed that by making changes to improve these formu- better than commercial repellents available.
heavy animal pressure, the best MSU formulation “Go Green” at 100% remained active acts as a sticking agent have been encouraging. Under rainy and snowy conditions and Literatur
If and when a company can be found that will manufacture and further develop Significance to the Michigan Industry:
The results of recent tests with the formulations “Go Green” and “Go Conclusions:
Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 42: 2-3, 101-107.
browsing on conifer seedlings. Special Issue: Protection, Gent, Belgium, May 1998, Part II. 63 :2b, 51 tal shrubs from browsing by white-tailed deer McCallum, M. 1996. MVC asks DNR for better control of deer herd. Great Lakes behavior of wild rabbits. J. Chem. Ecol. 20: 3, 631-637.
roe deer repellents on Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies seedlings. Scandinavian J.
ests with repellents extracted from plants since 1997 have consistently performed , M.R. and Kanis, G.S. 1988. Browsing preference of white-tailed deer for fectiveness of chemical repellents. Sylwan. 136: 1 . 1992. Evaluation of damage by red deer in young silver fir planta MSHS TRUST FUNDED RESEARCH
Agricultural Statistics Service, May 26.
, G. 1996. Browsing deterrent and phytotoxic ef fectiveness of capsaicin and bitrex repellents for ectiveness of odour repellents for protecting ornamen ficacy of selected repellents to deter deer is currently available. Formulation “B” contains mustard oil, capsaicin and lemon squirrels at Baldwin on corn treated with repellent materials. MSU-7 is a formulation of benzoate in the diet. Forestry Oxford. 69: 1, 1-4.
Sheets, K. 1995. Oh Deer! Fine Gardening Nov/Dec: 54-61.
ginianus), to predator urines. J. Chem. Ecol. 17:4, 767-777.
The feeding activity of deer (3 does and 5 fawns) at Rose Lake and deer and , L.B. 1997. Outsmarting Bambi. Sunset, Nov: 78-82.
A. et al. 1992. Can selenium protect trees from wildlife damage? riation in avoidance of Siberian pine needle oil by way: “A” contains putrescent whole egg solids and URAL SOCIETY OF MICHIGAN
Aversion of red deer and roe deer to denatonium on cedar boughs to deer at Rose Lake and on corn seeds to squirrels at E. Lansing. A comparison of the repellent activity of extracts from daf MSHS TRUST FUNDED RESEARCH
fodil extracts when applied to apple shoots and 14-day-old than 2 inches of snow and rain fell during the first 5 days.
with repellent materials at Rose Lake and East Lansing respectively MSU-7 is a formulation of extracts from daf The feeding activity of deer on cedar boughs and squirrels on corn seed treated The feeding activity of 6 deer at Rose Lake on ear corn treated with extracts T

formulation would be best for dormant plants or species resistant to the daf extract which replaces the peppermint extract in the “Go Green” formulation. Green” which includes extracts from pepper and rain fell during the first 2 days.
*,** F value for comparison with control significant at P MSU-7 is a formulation of extracts from daf The feeding activity of squirrels on two new repellent formulations; “Go The feeding activity of 6 deer at Rose Lake in ear corn treated with repellents White” may be toxic to growing plants because it contains daf This formulation is not phytotoxic and may be used on growing MSHS TRUST FUNDED RESEARCH
There was both rain and snow during the period of this est started 12/13/99. More than 1 inch of snow , catnip and peppermint plus a green dye on


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