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ROLE OF PROGESTERONE IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION
Progestin is a substance, which converts the estrogen-primed endometrium to secretory and maintain pregnancy in animals spayed after conception.
(Progestin = Favoring pregnancy).
The most common progestin is progesterone, which is the hormone mainly
responsible for nidation and maintenance of pregnancy. Source
Progesterone is the gonadal hormone secreted principally by corpus luteum. It
regulates several functions in reproduction such as Maintenance of Pregnancy,
Induction of ovulatory heat, Development of Mammary glands, Supression of uterine
motility etc. Role
The most dramatic role of progesterone probably occurs during pregnancy. As the
name of the steroid implies, it favors gestation, at least in early pregnancy in all
The early rise in progesterone following development of the CL prepares the uterus
for pregnancy at every cycle.
Progesterone acts on the endometrium, inhibiting myometrial activity and causing
preparation for nidation regardless of whether or not a zygote is present.
Progesterone favors an economy of body metabolism and during pregnancy the
female experiences a period of increased efficiency of nutrient utilization. Such an
effect is favorable if the nutrient supply is limited or costly.
The psychic effects of progesterone favor maternal behaviour in the female such as
Progesterone in low doses favors ovulation in the cow, rat, rabbit and bird. This is
probably indirect through its effect on LH release.
The physiologic half-life
of progesterone is only 22-36 minutes
in the cow. This
means that constant secretion is essential to maintain the circulating level. Metabolism and Excretion
Transport of estrogens (estradiol particularly) and progestins (progesterone
particularly) in the serum is similar for both.
Both are weakly but extensively bound to plasma proteins, which accounts for most of
the circulating sex steroids. Of the remainder, progesterone is strongly bound to
transcortin, while estrogen is weakly bound to the sex steroid binding globulin. The
relative importance of the above varies with species and is an area of research
Progesterone is eliminated as various glucuronides in urine of some species but in bile
of ruminant animals. Synthetic Progestins
These are either progesterone derivatives (21 C) or 19-nortestosterone derivatives (18
(Long acting injection)
Nomegestrol acetate Clinical Uses
Dosage of the exogenous progesterone, as per research studies is suggested to be
500mg. This dose if used as per the recommended schedule of administration
effectively checks habitual abortion.
Exogenous progesterone can be used as management tool to control abortions in the
first trimester of pregnancy, as the fetus is at more risk in this period.
Exogenous progesterone also helps to control prolapse of vagina, cervix and uterus.
Many clinicians have suspected that embryonic death in some animals may be due to
deficiency of progesterone. The hormone has been widely used with variable results
in cows, mares and other domestic animals. Progesterone USP
, in oil should be given intramuscularly daily as follows:
Progesterone in a depot form has duration of action of 1-2 weeks.
Maintain the cow under the influence of progesterone until corpus luteum regresses;
remove progesterone - Animals respond to progesterone with estrus 2-5 days later.
Considerable research has been done on blocking estrus in the bitch by administration
of progesterone or one of its analogs.
The blockage of GnRH release and output of pituitary gonadotropins are successful
and the ovary does not grow follicles. The bitch does not experience estrus while
under the influence of exogenous progesterone.
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