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Outlines or making some order to your paper
Outlines or making some order to your paper
Now that you and your paper have spent some time together, you are ready to begin
planning the order of it. It isn’t important to follow a strict formal outline, but it is
important to you and the success of your paper to have some sort of order to follow as
you begin writing.
What follows are some examples of designing order for your paper. Please choose a
method, whether it be on this handout or something of your own design and include it
with your research paper work.
By now, you have formed a WORKING THESIS
for your paper. This is the main focus
of the paper and is probably quite general right now. Let it be general and rough. That’s
why we cal it a working thesis. Chances are it won’t resemble your finished one. But, it
needs to be on your outline to help begin the paper and focus research. Ex. Of working thesis
: Soda and energy drinks contribute to poor attention and bad
work habits in students. Ex. Of a finished thesis with intro
: With names like Red Bull, Rock Star and Full
Throttle, teenagers spend an average of 3 billion annually on these deadly over-
caffeinated drinks. With complete disregard to the long-term health effects, researchers
are certain that the short-term effects may be just as deadly. Research has indicated that
teenagers who consume more than two “energy” drinks per day are candidates for far
Not really the same idea I began with. I certainly narrowed my topic and focus for the
paper. I also included specific names and facts in my intro/thesis. This has allowed me,
the writer, to feel more comfortable with my paper.
Look at the following examples of a thesis before you begin your own. If you are still
struggling, ask someone for help. TOO FACTUAL:
The first polygraph was developed by Dr. John A. Larson in 1921. REVISED:
Because the polygraph has not been proved reliable, even under the most
controlled conditions, its use by private employers should be banned. TOO BROAD:
Many drugs are now being used successfully to treat mental illness. REVISED:
Despite its risks and side effects, Prozac is an effective treatment for
depression. TOO VAGUE:
The MNCS no music policy is stupid. REVISED:
By not allowing students too listen to music during math time, MNCS is
eliminating a method of learning and allowing some students too struggle more than they
Methods of Order
The list. My personal favorite. This allows the writer see main topics and supporting ideas.
Energy Drinks are destroying teen-agers
o How much caffeine is in a cup of coffee as compared to Red Bull o What are the effects of that much caffeine on a teen-age body, including
o How much money do they spend on them? o Who are the drinks being marketed too?
What are the ingredients in most Energy Drinks?
o The label lists ginko boloba and other “natural herbs” but what is realy
o How much caffeine is too much? o Where did this whole energy drink craze come from and why? What is the
Find a personal story about the bad effects of Energy Drinks
o Look for evidence from credible source (medical journals) that documents
o Could there be a teen-ager who has documented their experience? o Can people go to rehab for caffeine addiction?
This is the beginning of my ideas. Not all of them will be included in my paper. But it
helps me “see” what I want to learn and what I know already. It also helps me see what
my focus might be. It took about 15 minutes for me to jot down my ideas in this format.
I didn’t over-think or over-analyze any of them. Some are pretty out there, but I allowed
myself to just write. This is the key to any successful paper. JUST WRITE. Don’t
worry about what comes out of your head.
Working Thesis: With names like Red Bull, Rock Star and Full Throttle, teenagers spend
an average of 3 billion annually on these deadly over-caffeinated drinks. With complete
disregard to the long-term health effects, researchers are certain that the short-term
effects may be just as deadly. Research has indicated that teenagers who consume more
than two “energy” drinks per day are candidates for far riskier behavior.
I. Teen-agers who consume an average of three or more energy drinks per day
are at high risk for a variety of negative health effects.
A. Increased heart rate has led students to heart palpitations and long term
B. Students exhibit the symptoms of caffeine highs and crashes including:
sweating, dizziness, disorientation, stumbling and slurring of speech.
C. Over consumption can lead to riskier behavior down the road such as
II. The caffeine content is far higher in energy drinks than an average coffee drink or
A. A 12-ounce serving of Amp contains 107 milligrams of caffeine,
compared with 34 to 38 milligrams for the same amount of Coca-Cola or Pepsi.
B. Monster has 120 milligrams and Red Bull has 116. Higher on the
spectrum, Spike Shooter contains 428 milligrams of caffeine in 12 ounces, and Wired X344 contains 258 milligrams.
C. At Starbucks, the caffeine content varies depending on the drink, from 75
milligrams in a 12-ounce cappuccino or latte to as much as 250 milligrams in a 12-ounce brewed coffee.
III. Energy drinks are advertised and designed for adults but the marketing is geared
A. The American Beverage Association says its members don't market
energy drinks to teenagers. "The intended audience is adults," said Craig Stevens, a spokesman. He says the marketing is meant for "people who can actually afford the two or three bucks to buy the products."
B. The average consumer is between 12 and 24 years old and spends upwards
C. Another concern that has risen lately is the mixing of energy drinks and
alcohol which allows users to not feel intoxicated. This leads to excessive drinking and riskier behavior because the user is unaware of their state of mind.
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GENITOURINARY COMPLICATIONS Two of the very important genitourinary complications of diabetes are urinary tract infections and erectile dysfunction . Urinary Tract Infections: Diabetes is a risk factor for urinary tract infections (UTIs). UTIs are much more common in women than men, whether they have diabetes or not. Although the reason for the association between diabetes and UTIs