NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 1 of 19 Section 1 - CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION PRODUCT NAME NULON INJECTOR CLEANER SYNONYMS "Product Code: NIC" PRODUCT USE ■ Used according to manufacturer's directions. Injector cleaning additive. SUPPLIER Company: Nulon Products Pty Ltd Address: 17 Yulong Close Moorebank NSW, 2170 Australia Telephone: +61 2 9608 7800 Fax: +61 2 9601 4700 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Section 2 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION STATEMENT OF HAZARDOUS NATURE HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE. NON-DANGEROUS GOODS. According to NOHSC Criteria, and ADG Code. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID, regulated under AS1940 for Bulk Storage purposes only. CHEMWATCH HAZARD RATINGS RISK Risk Codes
• Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
• May cause long- term adverse effects in the aquaticenvironment.
• HARMFUL - May cause lung damage if swallowed.
• Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness and cracking.
• Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. SAFETY Safety Codes
• Do not breathe gas/ fumes/ vapour/ spray. continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 2 of 19 Section 2 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
• Wear suitable protective clothing.
• Use only in well ventilated areas.
• Keep container in a well ventilated place.
• To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use waterand detergent.
• Keep away from food, drink and animal feeding stuffs.
• In case of contact with eyes, rinse with plenty of water and contact Doctor orPoisons Information Centre.
• If swallowed, IMMEDIATELY contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre (showthis container or label). Section 3 - COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
distillates, petroleum, middle, sweetened
ingredients at levels determined not to be hazardous
Section 4 - FIRST AID MEASURES SWALLOWED ■ - If swallowed do NOT induce vomiting. - If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain open airway and prevent aspiration. - Observe the patient carefully. - Never give liquid to a person showing signs of being sleepy or with reduced awareness; i.e. becoming unconscious. - Give water to rinse out mouth, then provide liquid slowly and as much as casualty can comfortably drink. - Seek medical advice. - Avoid giving milk or oils. - Avoid giving alcohol. - If spontaneous vomiting appears imminent or occurs, hold patient's head down, lower than their hips to help avoid possible aspiration of vomitus. EYE ■ If this product comes in contact with the eyes: - Wash out immediately with fresh running water. - Ensure complete irrigation of the eye by keeping eyelids apart and away from eye and moving the eyelids by occasionally lifting the upper and lower lids. - Seek medical attention without delay; if pain persists or recurs seek medical attention. - Removal of contact lenses after an eye injury should only be undertaken by skilled personnel. SKIN ■ If skin contact occurs: - Immediately remove all contaminated clothing, including footwear. - Flush skin and hair with running water (and soap if available). - Seek medical attention in event of irritation. INHALED ■ - If fumes or combustion products are inhaled remove from contaminated area. continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 3 of 19 Section 4 - FIRST AID MEASURES
- Lay patient down. Keep warm and rested. - Prostheses such as false teeth, which may block airway, should be removed, where possible, prior to initiating first aid procedures. - Apply artificial respiration if not breathing, preferably with a demand valve resuscitator, bag-valve mask device, or pocket mask as trained. Perform CPR if necessary. - Transport to hospital, or doctor. NOTES TO PHYSICIAN ■ For acute or short term repeated exposures to petroleum distillates or related hydrocarbons: - Primary threat to life, from pure petroleum distillate ingestion and/or inhalation, is respiratory failure. - Patients should be quickly evaluated for signs of respiratory distress (e.g. cyanosis, tachypnoea, intercostal retraction, obtundation) and given oxygen. Patients with inadequate tidal volumes or poor arterial blood gases (pO2 50 mm Hg) should be intubated. - Arrhythmias complicate some hydrocarbon ingestion and/or inhalation and electrocardiographic evidence of myocardial injury has been reported; intravenous lines and cardiac monitors should be established in obviously symptomatic patients. The lungs excrete inhaled solvents, so that hyperventilation improves clearance. - A chest x-ray should be taken immediately after stabilisation of breathing and circulation to document aspiration and detect the presence of pneumothorax. - Epinephrine (adrenalin) is not recommended for treatment of bronchospasm because of potential myocardial sensitisation to catecholamines. Inhaled cardioselective bronchodilators (e.g. Alupent, Salbutamol) are the preferred agents, with aminophylline a second choice. - Lavage is indicated in patients who require decontamination; ensure use of cuffed endotracheal tube in adult patients. [Ellenhorn and Barceloux: Medical Toxicology]. Any material aspirated during vomiting may produce lung injury. Therefore emesis should not be induced mechanically or pharmacologically. Mechanical means should be used if it is considered necessary to evacuate the stomach contents; these include gastric lavage after endotracheal intubation. If spontaneous vomiting has occurred after ingestion, the patient should be monitored for difficult breathing, as adverse effects of aspiration into the lungs may be delayed up to 48 hours. for naphthalene intoxication: Naphthalene requires hepatic and microsomal activation prior to the production of toxic effects. Liver microsomes catalyse the initial synthesis of the reactive 1,2-epoxide intermediate which is subsequently oxidised to naphthalene dihydrodiol and alpha-naphthol. The 2-naphthoquinones are thought to produce haemolysis, the 1,2-naphthoquinones are thought to be responsible for producing cataracts in rabbits, and the glutathione-adducts of naphthalene-1,2-oxide are probably responsible for pulmonary toxicity. Suggested treatment regime: -
Induce emesis and/or perform gastric lavage with large amounts of warm water where oral poisoning is
suspected. - Instill a saline cathartic such as magnesium or sodium sulfate in water (15 to 30g). - Demulcents such as milk, egg white, gelatin, or other protein solutions may be useful after the stomach isemptied but oils should be avoided because they promote absorption. - If eyes/skin contaminated, flush with warm water followed by the application of a bland ointment. - Severe anaemia, due to haemolysis, may require small repeated blood transfusions, preferably with red cellsfrom a non-sensitive individual. - Where intravascular haemolysis, with haemoglobinuria occurs, protect the kidneys by promoting a brisk flowof dilute urine with, for example, an osmotic diuretic such as mannitol. It may be useful to alkalinise theurine with small amounts of sodium bicarbonate but many researchers doubt whether this prevents blockage ofthe renal tubules. - Use supportive measures in the case of acute renal failure. GOSSELIN, SMITH HODGE: Clinical Toxicology ofCommercial Products, 5th Ed. Section 5 - FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES EXTINGUISHING MEDIA ■ - Water spray or fog. - Alcohol stable foam. - Dry chemical powder. - Carbon dioxide. continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 4 of 19 Section 5 - FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES FIRE FIGHTING ■ - Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard. - Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus. - Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course. - Use water delivered as a fine spray to control fire and cool adjacent area. - Avoid spraying water onto liquid pools. - DO NOT approach containers suspected to be hot. - Cool fire exposed containers with water spray from a protected location. - If safe to do so, remove containers from path of fire. FIRE/EXPLOSION HAZARD ■ - Combustible. - Slight fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame. - Heating may cause expansion or decomposition leading to violent rupture of containers. - On combustion, may emit toxic fumes of carbon monoxide (CO). - May emit acrid smoke. - Mists containing combustible materials may be explosive. Combustion products include: carbon dioxide (CO2), other pyrolysis products typical of burning organic material. May emit poisonous fumes. May emit corrosive fumes. FIRE INCOMPATIBILITY ■ - Avoid contamination with oxidising agents i.e. nitrates, oxidising acids, chlorine bleaches, pool chlorine etc. as ignition may result. HAZCHEM None Personal Protective Equipment Breathing apparatus. Chemical splash suit. Section 6 - ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES MINOR SPILLS ■ - Remove all ignition sources. - Clean up all spills immediately. - Avoid breathing vapours and contact with skin and eyes. - Control personal contact by using protective equipment. - Contain and absorb spill with sand, earth, inert material or vermiculite. - Wipe up. - Place in a suitable, labelled container for waste disposal. MAJOR SPILLS ■ Chemical Class: aliphatic hydrocarbons
For release onto land: recommended sorbents listed in order of priority. continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 5 of 19 Section 6 - ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
DGC: Not effective where ground cover is denseR; Not reusableI: Not incinerableP: Effectiveness reduced when rainyRT:Not effective where terrain is ruggedSS: Not for use within environmentally sensitive sitesW: Effectiveness reduced when windy
Reference: Sorbents for Liquid Hazardous Substance Cleanup and Control;
R.W Melvold et al: Pollution Technology Review No. 150: Noyes Data Corporation 1988. Moderate hazard. - Clear area of personnel and move upwind. - Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard. - Wear breathing apparatus plus protective gloves. - Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course. - No smoking, naked lights or ignition sources. - Increase ventilation. - Stop leak if safe to do so. - Contain spill with sand, earth or vermiculite. - Collect recoverable product into labelled containers for recycling. - Absorb remaining product with sand, earth or vermiculite. - Collect solid residues and seal in labelled drums for disposal. - Wash area and prevent runoff into drains. - If contamination of drains or waterways occurs, advise emergency services. Personal Protective Equipment advice is contained in Section 8 of the MSDS. continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 6 of 19 Section 7 - HANDLING AND STORAGE PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING ■ - Containers, even those that have been emptied, may contain explosive vapours. - Do NOT cut, drill, grind, weld or perform similar operations on or near containers. - DO NOT allow clothing wet with material to stay in contact with skin. - Electrostatic discharge may be generated during pumping - this may result in fire. - Ensure electrical continuity by bonding and grounding (earthing) all equipment. - Restrict line velocity during pumping in order to avoid generation of electrostatic discharge (<=1 m/sec until fill pipe submerged to twice its diameter, then <= 7 m/sec). - Avoid splash filling. - Do NOT use compressed air for filling discharging or handling operations. - Avoid all personal contact, including inhalation. - Wear protective clothing when risk of exposure occurs. - Use in a well-ventilated area. - Prevent concentration in hollows and sumps. - DO NOT enter confined spaces until atmosphere has been checked. - Avoid smoking, naked lights or ignition sources. - Avoid contact with incompatible materials. - When handling, DO NOT eat, drink or smoke. - Keep containers securely sealed when not in use. - Avoid physical damage to containers. - Always wash hands with soap and water after handling. - Work clothes should be laundered separately. - Use good occupational work practice. - Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations. - Atmosphere should be regularly checked against established exposure standards to ensure safe working conditions. SUITABLE CONTAINER ■ - Metal can or drum - Packaging as recommended by manufacturer. - Check all containers are clearly labelled and free from leaks. STORAGE INCOMPATIBILITY ■ - Avoid reaction with oxidising agents. STORAGE REQUIREMENTS ■ - Store in original containers. - Keep containers securely sealed. - No smoking, naked lights or ignition sources. - Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area. - Store away from incompatible materials and foodstuff containers. - Protect containers against physical damage and check regularly for leaks. - Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations. Section 8 - EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTECTION EXPOSURE CONTROLS Source
middle, sweetened (Oilmist, refined mineral)
continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 7 of 19 Section 8 - EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTECTION EMERGENCY EXPOSURE LIMITS Material MATERIAL DATA DISTILLATES, PETROLEUM, MIDDLE, SWEETENED: NAPHTHALENE:
■ Sensory irritants are chemicals that produce temporary and undesirable side-effects on the eyes, nose or
throat. Historically occupational exposure standards for these irritants have been based on observation ofworkers' responses to various airborne concentrations. Present day expectations require that nearly everyindividual should be protected against even minor sensory irritation and exposure standards are establishedusing uncertainty factors or safety factors of 5 to 10 or more. On occasion animal no-observable-effect-levels (NOEL) are used to determine these limits where human results are unavailable. An additional approach,typically used by the TLV committee (USA) in determining respiratory standards for this group of chemicals,has been to assign ceiling values (TLV C) to rapidly acting irritants and to assign short-term exposurelimits (TLV STELs) when the weight of evidence from irritation, bioaccumulation and other endpoints combineto warrant such a limit. In contrast the MAK Commission (Germany) uses a five-category system based onintensive odour, local irritation, and elimination half-life. However this system is being replaced to beconsistent with the European Union (EU) Scientific Committee for Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL); thisis more closely allied to that of the USA.
OSHA (USA) concluded that exposure to sensory irritants can:- cause inflammation- cause increased susceptibility to other irritants and infectious agents- lead to permanent injury or dysfunction- permit greater absorption of hazardous substances and- acclimate the worker to the irritant warning properties of these substances thus increasing the risk of
■ For trimethyl benzene as mixed isomers (of unstated proportions)Odour Threshold Value: 2.4 ppm (detection)Use care in interpreting effects as a single isomer or other isomer mix. Trimethylbenzene is an eye, nose
and respiratory irritant. High concentrations cause central nervous system depression. Exposed workers showCNS changes, asthmatic bronchitis and blood dyscrasias at 60 ppm. The TLV-TWA is thought to be protectiveagainst the significant risk of CNS excitation, asthmatic bronchitis and blood dyscrasias associated withexposures above the limit.
Odour Safety Factor (OSF)OSF=10 (1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE).
DISTILLATES, PETROLEUM, MIDDLE, SWEETENED:
■ for petroleum distillates:CEL TWA: 500 ppm, 2000 mg/m3 (compare OSHA TWA). WARNING: This substance is classified by the NOHSC as Category 2 Probable Human Carcinogen.
■ Exposed individuals are reasonably expected to be warned, by smell, that the Exposure Standard is being
Odour Safety Factor (OSF) is determined to fall into either Class A or B. The Odour Safety Factor (OSF) is defined as:OSF= Exposure Standard (TWA) ppm/ Odour Threshold Value (OTV) ppmClassification into classes follows:
continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 8 of 19 Section 8 - EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTECTION
Over 90% of exposed individualsare aware by smell that theExposure Standard (TLV- TWA forexample) is being reached, evenwhen distracted by workingactivities
As " A" for 50- 90% of personsbeing distracted
As " A" for less than 50% ofpersons being distracted
10- 50% of persons aware ofbeing tested perceive by smellthat the Exposure Standard isbeing reached
As " D" for less than 10% ofpersons aware of being tested
. Odour Threshold Value: 0.038 ppmThe TLV-TWA is thought to be low enough to prevent ocular toxicity but the margin of safety associated
with the TLV for hypersusceptible individuals (with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase defective erythrocytes)to naphthalene-induced blood dyscracias is unknown. Individual sensitivity to inhaled naphthalene-inducedhaemotoxicity varies greatly with even small doses producing acute haemolysis in some. PERSONAL PROTECTION EYE ■ - Safety glasses with side shields. - Chemical goggles. - Contact lenses may pose a special hazard; soft contact lenses may absorb and concentrate irritants. A written policy document, describing the wearing of lens or restrictions on use, should be created for each workplace or task. This should include a review of lens absorption and adsorption for the class of chemicals in use and an account of injury experience. Medical and first-aid personnel should be trained in their removal and suitable equipment should be readily available. In the event of chemical exposure, begin eye irrigation immediately and remove contact lens as soon as practicable. Lens should be removed at the first signs of eye redness or irritation - lens should be removed in a clean environment only after workers have washed hands thoroughly. [CDC NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 59], [AS/NZS 1336 or national equivalent]. HANDS/FEET ■ - Wear chemical protective gloves, eg. PVC. - Wear safety footwear or safety gumboots, eg. Rubber. Suitability and durability of glove type is dependent on usage. Important factors in the selection of gloves include: - frequency and duration of contact, - chemical resistance of glove material, - glove thickness and - dexterity Select gloves tested to a relevant standard (e.g. Europe EN 374, US F739, AS/NZS 2161.1 or national equivalent). - When prolonged or frequently repeated contact may occur, a glove with a protection class of 5 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 240 minutes according to EN 374, AS/NZS 2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended. - When only brief contact is expected, a glove with a protection class of 3 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 60 minutes according to EN 374, AS/NZS 2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended. - Contaminated gloves should be replaced. Gloves must only be worn on clean hands. After using gloves, hands should be washed and dried thoroughly. continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 9 of 19 Section 8 - EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTECTION
Application of a non-perfumed moisturiser is recommended. OTHER ■ - Overalls. - P.V.C. apron. - Barrier cream. - Skin cleansing cream. - Eye wash unit. RESPIRATOR •Type A-P Filter of sufficient capacity. (AS/NZS 1716 & 1715, EN 143:2000 & 149:2001, ANSI Z88 or national equivalent) ■ Cartridge respirators should never be used for emergency ingress or in areas of unknown vapour concentrations or oxygen content. The wearer must be warned to leave the contaminated area immediately on detecting any odours through the respirator. The odour may indicate that the mask is not functioning properly, that the vapour concentration is too high, or that the mask is not properly fitted. Because of these limitations, only restricted use of cartridge respirators is considered appropriate.
The local concentration of material, quantity and conditions of use determine the type of personal protectiveequipment required. For further information consult site specific CHEMWATCH data (if available), or yourOccupational Health and Safety Advisor. ENGINEERING CONTROLS ■ Engineering controls are used to remove a hazard or place a barrier between the worker and the hazard. Well- designed engineering controls can be highly effective in protecting workers and will typically be independent of worker interactions to provide this high level of protection. The basic types of engineering controls are: Process controls which involve changing the way a job activity or process is done to reduce the risk. Enclosure and/or isolation of emission source which keeps a selected hazard "physically" away from the worker and ventilation that strategically "adds" and "removes" air in the work environment. Ventilation can remove or dilute an air contaminant if designed properly. The design of a ventilation system must match the particular process and chemical or contaminant in use. Employers may need to use multiple types of controls to prevent employee overexposure.
Local exhaust ventilation usually required. If risk of overexposure exists, wear approved respirator. Correctfit is essential to obtain adequate protection. Supplied-air type respirator may be required in specialcircumstances. Correct fit is essential to ensure adequate protection. An approved self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) may be required in some situations. Provide adequate ventilation in warehouse or closed storage area. Section 9 - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES APPEARANCE Clear bright red liquid with a characteristic petroleum odour; not miscible with water. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Liquid. Does not mix with water. Floats on water. continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 10 of 19 Section 9 - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Section 10 - STABILITY AND REACTIVITY CONDITIONS CONTRIBUTING TO INSTABILITY ■ - Presence of incompatible materials. - Product is considered stable. - Hazardous polymerisation will not occur. For incompatible materials - refer to Section 7 - Handling and Storage. Section 11 - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS ACUTE HEALTH EFFECTS SWALLOWED ■ Accidental ingestion of the material may be damaging to the health of the individual. Ingestion of petroleum hydrocarbons can irritate the pharynx, oesophagus, stomach and small intestine, and cause swellings and ulcers of the mucous. Symptoms include a burning mouth and throat; larger amounts can cause nausea and vomiting, narcosis, weakness, dizziness, slow and shallow breathing, abdominal swelling, unconsciousness and convulsions. Damage to the heart muscle can produce heart beat irregularities, ventricular fibrillation (fatal) and ECG changes. The central nervous system can be depressed. Light species can cause a sharp tingling of the tongue and cause loss of sensation there. Aspiration can cause cough, gagging, pneumonia with swelling and bleeding. Ingestion of naphthalene and related compounds may produce abdominal cramps with nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache, profuse sweating, listlessness, confusion, and in severe poisonings, coma with or without convulsions. Irritation of the bladder may also occur, producing urgency, painful urination, and the passage of brown or black urine with or without albumin or casts. Severe naphthalene can result in haemoglobin appearing in the urine, methaemoglobinaemia, which causes oxygen starvation, and death. Methaemoglobinaemia is characterised by cyanosis (a bluish discolouration of skin and mucous membranes) and breathing difficulties. Symptoms may not occur until several hours after exposure. Survivors may develop life- threatening kidney failure. The acute lethal dose of naphthalene is estimated at 5-15 grams, but some susceptible individuals have died following ingestion of only 2 grams total. Some people (especially Asians, Arabs, Latin Caucasians and American and African blacks) may be particularly susceptible, especially males. Considered an unlikely route of entry in commercial/industrial environments. The liquid may produce gastrointestinal discomfort and may be harmful if swallowed. Ingestion may result in nausea, pain and vomiting. Vomit entering the lungs by aspiration may cause potentially lethal chemical pneumonitis. EYE ■ There is some evidence to suggest that this material can cause eye irritation and damage in some persons. Long term exposure to naphthalene has produced clouding of the lens (cataracts) in workers. Direct eye contact with petroleum hydrocarbons can be painful, and the corneal epithelium may be temporarily damaged. Aromatic species can cause irritation and excessive tear secretion. continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 11 of 19 Section 11 - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION SKIN ■ Repeated exposure may cause skin cracking, flaking or drying following normal handling and use. Skin contact with the material may damage the health of the individual; systemic effects may result following absorption. There is some evidence to suggest that this material can cause inflammation of the skin on contact in some persons. Workers sensitised to naphthalene and related compounds show an inflammation of the skin with scaling and reddening. Some individuals show an allergic reaction. Generally, absorption through the skin does not cause acute systemic reactions except in new-born babies. Photosensitisation, sunburn-like responses or blisters have been reported. Animal testing revealed naphthalene can cause disease changes in a range of organs. Open cuts, abraded or irritated skin should not be exposed to this material. The material may accentuate any pre-existing dermatitis condition. Entry into the blood-stream, through, for example, cuts, abrasions or lesions, may produce systemic injury with harmful effects. Examine the skin prior to the use of the material and ensure that any external damage is suitably protected. Aromatic hydrocarbons may produce sensitivity and redness of the skin. They are not likely to be absorbed into the body through the skin but branched species are more likely to. INHALED ■ Inhalation of vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. This may be accompanied by sleepiness, reduced alertness, loss of reflexes, lack of co-ordination, and vertigo. There is some evidence to suggest that the material can cause respiratory irritation in some persons. The body's response to such irritation can cause further lung damage. The acute toxicity of inhaled alkylbenzenes is best described by central nervous system depression. As a rule, these compounds may also act as general anaesthetics. Systemic poisoning produced by general anaesthesia is characterised by lightheadedness, nervousness, apprehension, euphoria, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, tinnitus, blurred or double vision, vomiting and sensations of heat, cold or numbness, twitching, tremors, convulsions, unconsciousness and respiratory depression and arrest. Cardiac arrest may result from cardiovascular collapse. Bradycardia, and hypotension may also be produced. Inhaled alkylbenzene vapours cause death in animals at air levels that are relatively similar (typically LC50s are in the range 5000 -8000 ppm for 4 to 8 hour exposures). It is likely that acute inhalation exposure to alkylbenzenes resembles that to general anaesthetics. Alkylbenzenes are not generally toxic other than at high levels of exposure. This may be because their metabolites have a low order of toxicity and are easily excreted. There is little or no evidence to suggest that metabolic pathways can become saturated leading to spillover to alternate pathways. Nor is there evidence that toxic reactive intermediates, which may produce subsequent toxic or mutagenic effects, are formed. Inhalation hazard is increased at higher temperatures. Inhaling high concentrations of mixed hydrocarbons can cause narcosis, with nausea, vomiting and lightheadedness. Low molecular weight (C2-C12) hydrocarbons can irritate mucous membranes and cause incoordination, giddiness, nausea, vertigo, confusion, headache, appetite loss, drowsiness, tremors and stupor. Massive exposures can lead to severe central nervous system depression, deep coma and death. Convulsions can occur due to brain irritation and/or lack of oxygen. Permanent scarring may occur, with epileptic seizures and brain bleeds occurring months after exposure. Respiratory system effects include inflammation of the lungs with oedema and bleeding. Lighter species mainly cause kidney and nerve damage; the heavier paraffins and olefins are especially irritant to the respiratory system. Alkenes produce pulmonary oedema at high concentrations. Liquid paraffins may produce sensation loss and depressant actions leading to weakness, dizziness, slow and shallow respiration, unconsciousness, convulsions and death. C5-7 paraffins may also produce multiple nerve damage. Aromatic hydrocarbons accumulate in lipid rich tissues (typically the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves) and may produce functional impairment manifested by nonspecific symptoms such as nausea, weakness, fatigue, vertigo; severe exposures may produce inebriation or unconsciousness. Many of the petroleum hydrocarbons can sensitise the heart and may cause ventricular fibrillation, leading to death. Central nervous system (CNS) depression may include general discomfort, symptoms of giddiness, headache, dizziness, nausea, anaesthetic effects, slowed reaction time, slurred speech and may progress to unconsciousness. Serious poisonings may result in respiratory depression and may be fatal. Inhalation of naphthalene vapour is linked with headache, loss of appetite, nausea, damage to the eyes and kidneys. According to animal testing, long term exposure may cause excessive weakness and increased continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 12 of 19 Section 11 - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
salivation, weight loss,difficulty breathing, collapse, and evidence of damage to the skin, liver and lungs. Inhalation of high concentrations of gas/vapour causes lung irritation with coughing and nausea, centralnervous depression with headache and dizziness, slowing of reflexes, fatigue and inco-ordination. Inhalation of aerosols (mists, fumes), generated by the material during the course of normal handling, may bedamaging to the health of the individual. CHRONIC HEALTH EFFECTS ■ There has been concern that this material can cause cancer or mutations, but there is not enough data to make an assessment. Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause drying with cracking, irritation and possible dermatitis following. Substance accumulation, in the human body, may occur and may cause some concern following repeated or long- term occupational exposure. Constant or exposure over long periods to mixed hydrocarbons may produce stupor with dizziness, weakness and visual disturbance, weight loss and anaemia, and reduced liver and kidney function. Skin exposure may result in drying and cracking and redness of the skin. Chronic exposure to lighter hydrocarbons can cause nerve damage, peripheral neuropathy, bone marrow dysfunction and psychiatric disorders as well as damage the liver and kidneys. Animal testing indicates that inhalation of naphthalene may increase the incidence of respiratory tumours and may aggravate chronic inflammation. Repeated application of mildly hydrotreated oils (principally paraffinic), to mouse skin, induced skin tumours; no tumours were induced with severely hydrotreated oils. Chronic solvent inhalation exposures may result in nervous system impairment and liver and blood changes. [PATTYS]. TOXICITY AND IRRITATION ■ unless otherwise specified data extracted from RTECS - Register of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
DISTILLATES, PETROLEUM, MIDDLE, SWEETENED:NULON INJECTOR CLEANER:■ No significant acute toxicological data identified in literature search.
NULON INJECTOR CLEANER:■ For trimethylbenzenes:Absorption of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene occurs after oral, inhalation, or dermal exposure. Occupationally,inhalation and dermal exposures are the most important routes of absorption although systemic intoxicationfrom dermal absorption is not likely to occur due to the dermal irritation caused by the chemical promptingquick removal. Following oral administration of the chemical to rats, 62.6% of the dose was recovered asurinary metabolites indicating substantial absorption . 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene is lipophilic and mayaccumulate in fat and fatty tissues. In the blood stream, approximately 85% of the chemical is bound to redblood cells
Metabolism occurs by side-chain oxidation to form alcohols and carboxylic acids which are then
conjugated with glucuronic acid, glycine, or sulfates for urinary excretion . After a single oral dose torats of 1200 mg/kg, urinary metabolites consisted of approximately 43.2% glycine, 6.6% glucuronic, and 12.9%sulfuric acid conjugates . The two principle metabolites excreted by rabbits after oral administration of 438mg/kg/day for 5 days were 2,4-dimethylbenzoic acid and 3,4-dimethylhippuric acid . The major routes ofexcretion of 1,2,4-trimethyl- benzene are exhalation of parent compound and elimination of urinarymetabolites. Half-times for urinary metabolites were reported as 9.5 hours for glycine, 22.9 hours forglucuronide, and 37.6 hours for sulfuric acid conjugates. Acute Toxicity Direct contact with liquid 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene is irritating to the skin and breathing thevapor is irritating to the respiratory tract causing pneumonitis. Breathing high concentrations of thechemical vapor causes headache, fatigue, and drowsiness. In humans liquid 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene isirritating to the skin and inhalation of vapor causes chemical pneumonitis . High concentrations of vapor(5000-9000 ppm) cause headache, fatigue, and drowsiness . The concentration of 5000 ppm is roughly equivalentto a total of 221 mg/kg assuming a 30 minute exposure period (see end note 1). 2. Animals - Mice exposed to8130-9140 ppm 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (no duration given) had loss of righting response and loss of reflexesDirect dermal contact with the chemical (no species given) causes vasodilation, erythema, and irritation(U.S. EPA ). Seven of 10 rats died after an oral dose of 2.5 mL of a mixture of trimethylbenzenes in oliveoil (average dose approximately 4.4 g/kg) . Rats and mice were exposed by inhalation to a coal tar distillate
continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 13 of 19 Section 11 - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
containing about 70% 1,3,5- and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene; no pathological changes were noted in either speciesafter exposure to 1800-2000 ppm for up to 48 continuous hours, or in rats after 14 exposures of 8 hours eachat the same exposure levels . No effects were reported for rats exposed to a mixture of trimethyl- benzenesat 1700 ppm for 10 to 21 days
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene depresses the central nervous system. Exposure to solvent mixtures
containing the chemical causes headache, fatigue, nervousness, and drowsiness. Occupationally, workersexposed to a solvent containing 50% 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene had nervousness, headaches, drowsiness, andvertigo (U.S. EPA). Headache, fatigue, and drowsiness were reported for workers exposed (no dose given) topaint thinner containing 80% 1,2,4- and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzenesResults of the developmental toxicity study indicate that the C9 fraction caused adverse neurological effectsat the highest dose (1500 ppm) tested. Subchronic/Chronic Toxicity Long-term exposure to solvents containing 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene may causenervousness, tension, and bronchitis. Painters that worked for several years with a solvent containing 50% 1,2,4- and 30% 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene showed nervousness, tension and anxiety, asthmatic bronchitis, anemia,and alterations in blood clotting; haematological effects may have been due to trace amounts of benzeneRats
given 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene orally at doses of 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. All rats
exposed to the high dose died and 1 rat in the low dose died (no times given); no other effects werereported. Rats exposed by inhalation to 1700 ppm of a trimethylbenzene isomeric mixture for 4 months haddecreased weight gain, lymphopenia and neutrophilia . Genotoxicity: Results of mutagenicity testing, indicate that the C9 fraction does not induce gene mutationsin prokaryotes (Salmonella tymphimurium/mammalian microsome assay); or in mammalian cells in culture (inChinese hamster ovary cells with and without activation). The C9 fraction does not does not induce chromosomemutations in Chinese hamster ovary cells with and without activation; does not induce chromosome aberrationsin the bone marrow of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed by inhalation (6 hours/day for 5 days); and does not inducesister chromatid exchange in Chinese hamster ovary cells with and without activation. Developmental/Reproductive Toxicity: A three-generation reproductive study on the C9 fraction was conductedCD rats (30/sex/group) were exposed by inhalation to the C9 fraction at concentrations of 0, 100, 500, or1500 ppm (0, 100, 500, or 1500 mg/kg/day) for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week. There was evidence of parental andreproductive toxicity at all dose levels. Indicators of parental toxicity included reduced body weights,increased salivation, hunched posture, aggressive behavior, and death. Indicators of adverse reproductivesystem effects included reduced litter size and reduced pup body weight. The LOEL was 100 ppm; a no-observed-effect level was not established Developmental toxicity, including possible develop- mental neurotoxicity,was evident in rats in a 3-generation reproductive studyNo effects on fecundity or fertility occurred in rats treated dermally with up to 0.3 mL/rat/day of a mixtureof trimethyl- benzenes, 4-6 hours/day, 5 days/week over one generation.
Unrep. (man) LDLo: 74 mg/kgOral (rat) LD50: 490 mg/kgDermal (rat) LD50: >2500 mg/kg■ The material may be irritating to the eye, with prolonged contact causing inflammation. Repeated orprolonged exposure to irritants may produce conjunctivitis. The material may cause skin irritation after prolonged or repeated exposure and may produce on contact skinredness, swelling, the production of vesicles, scaling and thickening of the skin. WARNING: This substance has been classified by the IARC as Group 2B: Possibly Carcinogenic to Humans. CARCINOGEN Naphthalene
for Research on Cancer(IARC) - AgentsReviewed by the IARCMonographs
continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 14 of 19 Section 11 - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
DISTILLATES, PETROLEUM, MIDDLE, SWEETENED:■ for gas oils and distillate fuels:The gas oils category includes both finished products (distillate fuels) and the refinery streams (gas oils)from which they are blended. The materials in this category, together with those in the Jet Fuel/Kerosenecategory, constitute a generic class of petroleum substances commonly known as middle distillates. Thedistillate fuels covered in this category are used in diesel engines and for both industrial and domesticheating. While within the refinery the gas oil streams exist primarily as intermediates in closed systems. Selected gas oil streams may ultimately be blended into distillate fuels, marine bunker fuels andoccasionally into lubricants. At ambient temperatures, all the substances in this category are liquids. Gasoil streams and distillate fuels are complex petroleum mixtures, composed primarily of saturated (paraffinicand naphthenic) or aromatic hydrocarbons with carbon numbers ranging from C9 to C30. Gas Oils are similar from both a process and physical-chemical perspective, being differentiated from eachother primarily by their aromatic and saturated hydrocarbon content. The compositions of the gas oil streamsrange from those that are predominantly saturated hydrocarbons to those that are predominantly aromatichydrocarbons. Consequently, the category can be considered a continuum, bounded by materials that arecompositionally either high in saturated hydrocarbons or aromatic hydrocarbons. While the ratio of thesaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons may vary between category members the saturated and aromatic hydrocarbonsspecies that make up the category members are similar. Based on the available data, the physical-chemicalproperties of an individual category member depend on its compositional makeup, vis a vis saturated andaromatic hydrocarbons. Therefore, gas oil streams that are predominantly saturated hydrocarbons will havesimilar physical-chemical properties, while those that are composed predominantly of aromatic hydrocarbonswill have somewhat different properties. As products that are blended from the gas oil streams, thecompositions of the distillate fuels fall within the range of the compositions shown by the gas oil streamsand reflect the characteristics of the gas oils streams from which they are blended. Boiling Point
Gas oils do not have a single numerical value for boiling point, but rather a boiling or
distillation range that reflects the individual components in the hydrocarbon mixture. Distillation rangesfor a variety of gas oils have been reported for a number of blended gas oil products
production streams . Typical distillation ranges for blended fuels are 160 to 390 C for an automotive gas oil(diesel fuel), 160 to 400 C for a heating oil, and 170 to 420 C for a distillate marine fuel Typical low endand high end distillation temperatures for gas oil production streams were 172 and 344 C for ahydrodesulfurised middle distillate (65.6% -79.4% saturated hydrocarbons), 185 and 391 C for a straight-runmiddle distillate (78.8 saturated hydrocarbons), and 185 and 372
C for a light catalytic cracked distillate
(60.8% -79.8% aromatic hydrocarbons). No substantial differences in boiling range were apparent for gas oilswith high concentrations of either aromatic or saturated hydrocarbonsVapor Pressure : For mixtures such as petroleum products, the vapor pressure of the mixture is the sum of thepartial pressures of the individual components (Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures). Gas oils are expected tohave low vapor pressure due to their boiling range (150 to 450 C) and molecular weights of the constituenthydrocarbons (C9 – 30 carbon atoms). Because the physical-chemical characteristics of distillate fuelsreflect the gas oil streams from which they were produced, these vapor pressure measurements are expected toapproximate the vapor pressures of individual gas oils. Vapour pressure estimates of low molecular weighthydrocarbons of varying isomeric structures fell within a range of 0.01-1.6 kPa, with higher molecular weighthydrocarbons showing very low vapour pressures (e.g., 10-8 to 10-10 kPa). Partition Coefficient
The percent distribution of the hydrocarbon groups (i.e., paraffins, olefins,
naphthenes, and aromatics) and the carbon chain lengths of hydrocarbon constituents in gas oils largelydetermines the partitioning characteristics of the mixture. Generally, hydrocarbon chains with fewer carbonatoms tend to have lower partition coefficients than those with higher carbon numbers
complex mixtures, it is not possible to determine their log Kow values. Rather, partition coefficients havebeen calculated for individual component hydrocarbons from known hydrocarbon composition
Kow values ranged from 3.9 to >6.0 for a hydrodesulfurised middle distillate ((65.6% -79.4% saturatedhydrocarbons), straight-run middle distillate (78.8% saturated hydrocarbons), and a light cat-crackeddistillate (60.8% -79.8% aromatic hydrocarbons). There are no apparent differences in the range of Kow valuesdetermined for gas oils with high concentrations of either aromatic or saturated hydrocarbons. A similarrange of partition coefficients would be expected for component hydrocarbons in distillate fuels. Environmental fate:Photodegradation : The direct aqueous photolysis of an organic molecule occurs when it absorbs sufficient
continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 15 of 19 Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
light energy to result in a structural transformation. Only light energy at wavelengths between 290 and 750nm can result in photochemical transformations in the environment, although absorption is not alwayssufficient for a chemical to undergo photochemical degradation. Saturated and one-ring aromatic hydrocarbonsdo not show absorbance in the 290 to 800 nm range and would not be expected to be directly photodegraded. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, on the other hand, have shown absorbance of the 290 to 800 nm range of lightenergy and could potentially undergo photolysis reactions. The degree and rate at which these compoundsphotodegrade depends upon whether conditions allow penetration of light with sufficient energy to effect achange. Components in gas oils that do not directly photodegrade (e.g., paraffins, naphthenes, and one-ring aromaticcompounds) may be subject to indirect photodegradation. Indirect photodegradation is the reaction withphotosensitised oxygen in the atmosphere in the form of hydroxyl radicals (OH ). Atmospheric oxidation rates and half-lives were calculated for the low and high end of the range of molecularweight constituents of gas oils (e.g., C9 and 30 hydrocarbon structures). Half-life estimates for thesecompounds ranged from 0.1 (for various C9 to C30 olefinic structures and C30 2+ring aromatic compounds) to1.5 days (for a C9 one-ring aromatic structure). Based on the calculated half-life values calculatedsubstantial differences in indirect photodegradation potential is expected between gas oils with highconcentrations of either aromatic or saturated hydrocarbons. A similar range of water solubility values wouldbe expected for component hydrocarbons in distillate fuels. Water Solubility : When released to water, gas oils will float and spread at a rate that is viscosity-dependent. Component hydrocarbons in gas oils will partition to water according to their individualsolubility values. For individual hydrocarbon constituents in gas oils, water solubility values vary byorders of magnitude. Molecular weight and chemical structure have a great influence on the ultimate degree ofsolubility. Calculated water solubility ranged from essentially insoluble (approximately 10-8 mg/L) for thehigher molecular weight fractions (e.g., C30) within gas oil to approximately 52 mg/L for a C9 alkylbenzene. Hydrolysis: The materials in the gas oils category do not contain chemical moieties that undergo hydrolysis. Transport and Distribution in the Environment (Fugacity) Models have been used to estimate the percentdistribution in environmental media (i.e., air, water, soil, sediment, and fish) of various C9 to C30compounds representing the different classes of hydrocarbons found in gas oils (e.g., paraffins, olefins,naphthenes, and aromatics). Hydrocarbons having nine carbon atoms showed a tendency to partition to air (upto 98%). As molecular weight increases, partitioning shifts to soil, which accounts for 98% of thedistribution of the C30 components. This trend was similar for saturate and aromatic structures alike. Therefore, gas oils with high concentrations of either aromatic or saturated hydrocarbons are expected topartition in the environment in a similar mannerBiodegradation : Much of what is known is based on information gained from testing hydrocarbon mixtures ofother petroleum products. Under standard biodegradability tests, hydrocarbon compounds representative ofthose found in gas oils typically do not pass ready biodegradability test conditions. Although thosecompounds are not recognized as being readily biodegradable, most hydrocarbon species present in gas oils areknown to be ultimately degraded by aerobic microorganisms
Lower molecular weight compounds may be expected
to be degraded relatively quickly in aerobic conditions, while higher molecular weight compounds,particularly polycyclic aromatics, will degrade slower. Much of this evidence is based on bioremediationstudies of contaminated soils, which have shown that hydrocarbon components in gas oils are degraded in thepresence of oxygen. Bioremediation of a diesel fuel spill has also been demonstrated under Arctic conditionsUnder anaerobic conditions, such as anoxic sediments, rates of biodegradation of gas oils components arenegligible and the gas oils may persist under those conditions for some time. Degradation then will bedependent on bioturbation or resuspension to provide microbes with access to oxygen. Ecotoxicity:
Multiple ecotoxicological studies on heating and transportation fuels (e.g., no. 2 fuel oil and diesel fuel)
have been conducted. In general, these commercial distillate fuels show moderate toxicity to aquatic life. LC50 values for fish ranged from 3.2 to 65 mg/L , while EC50 values for invertebrates ranged from 2.0 to 210mg/L. DO NOT discharge into sewer or waterways.
NAPHTHALENE:■ Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Do NOT allow product to come in contact with surface waters or to intertidal areas below the mean high watermark. Do not contaminate water when cleaning equipment or disposing of equipment wash-waters. Wastes resulting from use of the product must be disposed of on site or at approved waste sites. for naphthalene:Environmental fate:
continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 16 of 19 Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
Naphthalene released to the atmosphere may be transported to surface water and/or soil by wet or drydeposition. Since most airborne naphthalene is in the vapor phase, deposition is expected to be very slow(about 0.04–0.06 cm/sec). It has been estimated that about 2–3% of naphthalene emitted to air is transportedto other environmental media, mostly by dry deposition . Naphthalene in surface water may volatilise to the atmosphere. The rate of volatilization also depends uponseveral environmental conditions, including temperature, wind velocity, and mixing rates of the air and watercolumns. Log octanol/water partition coefficients (Kow) for naphthalene range from 3.29 to 3.37 and log organic carboncoefficients (Koc) range from 2.97 to 3.27. The reported experimentally determined log Koc is 3.11. Based onthe magnitude of these values, it is expected that only a small fraction (<10%) of naphthalene in typicalsurface water would be associated with particulate matter. Thus, naphthalene discharged to surface waterswould remain largely in solution, with smaller quantities being associated with suspended solids and benthicsediments. Naphthalene is easily volatilized from aerated soils and is adsorbed to a moderate extent (10%) . The extentof sorption depends on the organic carbon content of the soil, with rapid movement expected through sandysoils. The estimated soil adsorption coefficient for naphthalene in a soil with <0.6% organic carbon is 1.8 . Because it adsorbs to aquifer material, naphthalene's passage through groundwater will be somewhat retarded. However, sorption of naphthalene to aquifer materials with low organic carbon content (<0.03%) may beenhanced by the presence of nonionic low-polarity organics, such as tetrachloroethene, commonly found athazardous waste sites. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for naphthalene have been measured and calculated fromthe Kow, Koc, or water solubility. The values reported for log BCF range from 1.6 to 3, indicating moderatebioconcentration in aquatic organisms. Naphthalene is reported to be rapidly eliminated from invertebrateswhen the organisms are placed in pollutant-free water, and naphthalene is readily metabolized in fish . Basedon the magnitude of the Kow, bioaccumulation in the food chain is not expected to occur. However, naphthaleneexposure of cows and chickens could lead to the presence of naphthalene in milk and eggs. Limited data were located on transport and partitioning of methylnaphthalenes in the environment. Therespective vapor pressures (0.054 and 0.068 mmHg), water solubilities (25.8 and 24.6 mg/L), and Henry's lawconstants (3.60x10-4 and 4.99x10-4 atm-m3/mol) for 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene are of similarmagnitude to these properties for naphthalene. Thus, it is likely that loss of methylnaphthalenes fromambient water occurs by volatilization. Based on the magnitude of log Kow for 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene (3.87 and 3.86, respectively)
and the experimental log Koc for 2-methylnaphthalene (3.93)
these chemicals may partition similarly to naphthalene in environmental media and are expected to be slightlymobile to immobile in soils. Log BCFs calculated for 2-methylnaphthalene range from 2 to 2.8 and measured logBCFs for 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene in oysters ranged from 2.7 to 4.1. Methylnaphthalenesare also metabolised and excreted rapidly by fish and shellfish when they are removed from polluted waters. The most important atmospheric removal process for naphthalene is reaction with photochemicallyproduced hydroxyl radicals. The major products of this reaction are 1- and 2-naphthol and 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene. Naphthalene also reacts with N2O5, nitrate radicals, and ozone in the atmosphere andphotolysis is expected to occur. Methylnaphthalenes also react with hydroxyl radicals. The reported rateconstants are 5.30x10-11 and 5.23x10-11 cm3/molecule-sec for 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene,respectively. Based on an atmospheric hydroxyl radical concentration of 1x10 6/cm3, the correspondingatmospheric half-lives are 3.6 and 3.7 hours. Reactions of 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene withN2O5 radicals have half-lives of 24 and 19 days, respectively. These chemicals also react with atmosphericozone. Naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes are degraded in water by photolysis and biological processes. The half-life for photolysis of naphthalene in surface water is estimated to be about 71 hours, but the half-life indeeper water (5 m) is estimated at 550 days. The half-lives for photolysis of 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene were estimated at 22 and 54 hours, respectively. Biodegradation of naphthalene is sufficiently rapid for it to be a dominant fate process in aquatic systems. Data on biodegradation of naphthalene in biodegradability tests and natural systems suggest thatbiodegradation occurs after a relatively short period of acclimation. Methylnaphthalenes are biodegradedunder aerobic conditions after adaptation. The highest degradation rates were reported in water constantlypolluted with petroleum. Naphthalene biodegradation rates are about 8–20 times higher in sediment than in the water column above thesediment. Methylnaphthalenes biodegrade more slowly. Reported half-lives in sediments were 46 weeks for 1-methylnaphthalene and ranged from 14 to 50 weeks for 2-methylnaphthalene. In soils, biodegradation potential is important to biological remediation of soil. Studies on biodegradationof PAHs suggest that adsorption to the organic matter significantly reduces the bioavailability formicroorganisms, and thus the biodegradability, of PAHs, including naphthalene. Biodegradation is accomplished
continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 17 of 19 Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
through the action of aerobic microorganisms and declines precipitously when soil conditions becomeanaerobic. Studies indicate that naphthalene biodegrades to carbon dioxide in aerobic soils, with salicylateas an intermediate product. Abiotic degradation of naphthalene seldom occurs in soils. The behavior of 1-methylnaphthalene in sandy loam was very similar to that of naphthalene. 1-Methylnaphthalene was easilyvolatilised from aerated soil, and the biodegradation half-life averaged between
Ecotoxicity:Acute toxicity data on naphthalene are available for several fish species (freshwater and marine). If lowreliable data (too old, static test, nominal concentrations) are excluded, 96h LC50 values range from 1.8 to7.8 mg/L. Comparable results were obtained with other vertebrates (amphibians). From chronic toxicity tests, a precise NOEL is not clearly determined. A NOEC of 0.12 mg/L was observed in a40 days test on juvenile pink salmon, but 50% mortality at 0.11 mg/L was calculated for trout fry exposedduring hatching. Several data are also available for invertebrates, showing 48h EC50 values ranging from 2.1 to 24 mg/L. Alsoin this case, higher figures must be taken with care due to nominal concentrations. Chronic data on freshwater invertebrates are methodologically unclear or questionable. On algae too, data available are obtained with hardly comparable methodological approaches. 50%photosynthesis reduction was observed at 2.8 mg/L in 4 hours experiments. QSAR predictions using equations for narcosis give results consistent with experimental short-term data onfish daphnia and algae. log Kow: 3.01-3.59Koc: 400-1000log Kom: 2.93-3.29Half-life (hr) air: 6.3-24Half-life (hr) H2O surface water: 0.8-13200Half-life (hr) H2O ground: 5256Half-life (hr) soil: 8-150Half-life (hr) sediment: 4.9->2112Henry's Pa m³ /mol: 29.2-56Henry's atm m³ /mol: (4.83-5.53)e-4BOD 5 if unstated: nilCOD: 22%ThOD: 2.99BCF: 20-6000Log BCF: 1.48-4.11Toxicity Fish:
Ecotoxicity Ingredient Section 13 - DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
■ - Containers may still present a chemical hazard/ danger when empty. - Return to supplier for reuse/ recycling if possible. Otherwise:- If container can not be cleaned sufficiently well to ensure that residuals do not remain or if the container cannot be used to store the same product, then puncture containers, to prevent re-use, and bury at an authorised landfill. - Where possible retain label warnings and MSDS and observe all notices pertaining to the product. Legislation addressing waste disposal requirements may differ by country, state and/ or territory. Each user must refer to laws operating in their area. In some areas, certain wastes must be tracked. continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 18 of 19 Section 13 - DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
A Hierarchy of Controls seems to be common - the user should investigate:- Reduction- Reuse- Recycling- Disposal (if all else fails)This material may be recycled if unused, or if it has not been contaminated so as to make it unsuitable for its intended use. If it has been contaminated, it may be possible to reclaim the product by filtration, distillation or some other means. Shelf life considerations should also be applied in making decisions of this type. Note that properties of a material may change in use, and recycling or reuse may not always be appropriate. - DO NOT allow wash water from cleaning or process equipment to enter drains. - It may be necessary to collect all wash water for treatment before disposal. - In all cases disposal to sewer may be subject to local laws and regulations and these should be considered first. - Where in doubt contact the responsible authority. - Recycle wherever possible or consult manufacturer for recycling options. - Consult State Land Waste Authority for disposal. - Bury or incinerate residue at an approved site. - Recycle containers if possible, or dispose of in an authorised landfill. Section 14 - TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION
Labels Required: COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID, regulated under AS1940 for Bulk Storage purposes only. HAZCHEM: None
NOT REGULATED FOR TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS: ADG7, UN, IATA, IMDG
Section 15 - REGULATORY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Regulations for ingredients distillates, petroleum, middle, sweetened (CAS: 64741-86-2) is found on the following regulatory lists; "Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)" naphthalene (CAS: 91-20-3) is found on the following regulatory lists; "Australia Exposure Standards","Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 6","GESAMP/EHS Composite List - GESAMP Hazard Profiles","IMO IBC Code Chapter 17: Summary of minimum requirements","IMO MARPOL 73/78 (Annex II) - List of Noxious Liquid Substances Carried in Bulk","IMO Provisional Categorization of Liquid Substances - List 2: Pollutant only mixtures containing at least 99% by weight of components already assessed by IMO","International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC Monographs","International Chemical Secretariat (ChemSec) SIN List (*Substitute It Now!)","International Fragrance Association (IFRA) Survey: Transparency List" No data for Nulon Injector Cleaner (CW: 4765-24) Section 16 - OTHER INFORMATION
■ Classification of the preparation and its individual components has drawn on official and authoritative sources as well as independent review by the Chemwatch Classification committee using available literature references. continued. NULON INJECTOR CLEANER Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011 CHEMWATCH 4765-24 NC317ECP Version No:2.0 CD 2011/3 Page 19 of 19 Section 16 - OTHER INFORMATION
A list of reference resources used to assist the committee may be found at: www.chemwatch.net/references.
■ The (M)SDS is a Hazard Communication tool and should be used to assist in the Risk Assessment. Many factors determine whether the reported Hazards are Risks in the workplace or other settings. Risks may be determined by reference to Exposures Scenarios. Scale of use, frequency of use and current or available engineering controls must be considered. This document is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, review orcriticism, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without writtenpermission from CHEMWATCH. TEL (+61 3) 9572 4700.
Issue Date: 7-Oct-2011Print Date: 7-Oct-2011
Name _____________________________________________________Date___________________ Address _____________________________City _________________ Zip_____________________ Email _______________________________ Birthday __________________ Age today? ________ Home Phone ____________________________ Alt/Cell ___________________________________ How did you hear about Nourish Inside & Out? _________
11 November 2009 Strategy and Policy Committee 28 October 2009 Report no: S&P2009/6/5 Draft Hutt City Community Arts and Culture Policy 2010-2012 Purpose of Report The purpose of the report is to seek the Strategy and Policy Committee’s approval to issue a Draft Community Arts and Culture Policy 2010-2012 for consultation. Recommendations approves the Draft C