Microsoft word - application note kidney stones 4-04.doc

January 2003
Automated Analysis of Kidney Stones
requires a relatively large sample. Infrared improved this process, but it was still fairly the advent of computer technology and the introduction of Fourier transform infrared constituents (like cystine, cholesterol, bile salts, hemoglobin and protein); and process required grinding a small (1-6 mg) amount of KBr, then compressing that into provide important diagnostics a pellet to be analyzed by IR. information. When ARUP began doing calculi analysis around 1985, stone volume averaged 10 per week, done by two technologists who also did many other departmental tests. Last year (1996), the average sample volume increased to more than 50 each day, six days per week, while personnel had only increased to three technologists who were also responsible for performing other complicated and time consuming tests. Recent addition of an assistant responsible for making KBr pellets improved the situation slightly, but did not resolve all the problems. It was obvious that we needed to look for other solutions The AutoDiff accessory is mounted in the FTIR spectrometer. The FTIR is set to 8 cm-1 resolution and 32 scans. The spectra are collected from 4000 to 400 cm-1 (the same range which is traditionally used by transmittance methods). The achieved time savings are substantial. By KBr pellet method, it took about 3 hours to get 50 samples from container to pellet, and about 2 hours to scan and print data for all of them. With the automated diffuse reflectance accessory, it takes about 2 hours to get a run of 50 samples from container to a describing, weighing, crushing, separating Fig. 2 AutoDiff with the Motor
layers and/or colors, as well as mixing the samples); then, it takes about 1 hour to Control Unit
Our search concentrated on diffuse reflectance - a fairly promising technique, where the light reflected from powder-sample mix is analyzed directly instead of being transmitted through a pellet. Going to diffuse reflectance eliminated the whole step of making a pellet. In addition, this technique offered us the ability to fully automate collection of spectra, data analysis and processing steps. The PIKE Fig. 3 Spectra of MAP, Uric Acid and
medically important. However, additional pellets and the individual scan-and-print studies may prove otherwise and may lead to better diagnostic information). We also identified spectra and automate our data them are not consistent with calculi This article has been written and printed with permission of Teri Wojcik of ARUP. Teri is responsible for calculi analysis in the Catecholamine and Vitamins Department. ARUP is an osoteric laboratory located in Salt Lake City, Utah. Within the Metabolics Department, about 1600 calculi are analyzed each month.


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