Italiano Farmacia on line: comprare cialis senza ricetta, acquistare viagra internet.

Rmv 02:revue 08-09.qxd

Prevalence of helminths and efficacy of
anthelmintics against nematodes in naturally
infected sheep in Jeldu district, Oromia
Regional State, Ethiopia
1National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, P.O. Box 04, Sebeta, ETHIOPIA.
2Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA.
3Department of Parasitology and Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, ETHIOPIA.
*Corresponding author: tadesseeguale@yahoo.com RÉSUMÉ
Prévalence des parasites et efficacité des anthelminthiques contre les
A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminths in sheep nématodes présents chez des moutons naturellement infestés du district
and to evaluate the efficacy of one brand of albendazole, two brands of tetra- de Jeldu, région d’Oromia, Ethiopie
misole and one brand of tetraclozan against nematodes of sheep in Jeldu dis-trict, west Showa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Coprological Cette étude avait pour objectif de déterminer la prévalence des helminthes investigation revealed that sheep in the district were infested by a variety of chez les moutons du district de Jeldu, Ethiopie, et d’évaluer l’efficacité de helminth parasites; 67.4% with Strongyle, 20.2% with Moniezia, 11.63% plusieurs marques d’antiparasitaires (1 marque pour l’albendazole et le with Fasciola, 8.5% with paramhistomum and 0.8% with Trichuris parasites.
tetraclozan, 2 pour le tetramisole) contre les nématodes.Les analyses copro- Based on their initial fecal egg count, animals were allocated into four treatment scopiques ont montrés que les animaux de cette région étaient infestés par groups: albendazole (Albendazole 300mg, Chengdu Qiankun Vet. pharma- plusieurs types d’helminthes : 67,4 % avec des strongyles, 20,2 % avec ceuticals Co. Ltd, China), tetramisole (Rangtetra-600, Cipla Ltd. Mumbai Monieza, 11,63 % avec Fasciola, 8,5 % avec paramhistomum et 0,8 % avec Central, India), tetramisole (Chengdu Qiankun Vet. pharmaceuticals Co.
des trichures. En fonction du dénombremtn initial des œufs, les animaux ont Ltd, China), tetraclozan, (Tetracozash-900, Ashish Life Science Pvt. Ltd., été répartis en 4 groupes de traitement : albendazole (Albendazole 300 mg, India) and untreated control group of 15-16 animals per each group with a Chengdu Qiankun Vet. pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd, China), tetramisole uniform mean fecal egg count (FEC) and treated with the respective drugs (Rangtetra-600, Cipla Ltd. Mumbai Central, India), tetramisole (Chengdu according to the manufacturers recommendation. Fecal egg count reduction Qiankun Vet. pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd, China), tetraclozan, (Tetracozash- test (FECRT) was used to determine the efficacy of each anthelmintic drug 900, Ashish Life Science Pvt. Ltd., India) et un groupe contrôle non traité.
10 days post treatment. In spite of complaints of reduced efficacy by some Chaque groupe comprenait 15-16 animaux. La réduction de la numération sheep owners, all of the anthelmintics tested in the current study were found des œufs dans les faeces a été utilisée pour déterminer l’efficacité relative de to be highly effective and reduction of 98.77-100% FEC of nematode parasites chaque molécule 10 jours après traitement. En dépit des remarques provenant was recorded. Proper dosing, anthelmintic rotation and the selective treatment de certains éléeveurs suggérant une perte d’efficacité, tous les traitements of those individuals that are most affected is recommended to maintain the testés ont été très efficaces et ont entrainé une réduction de 98 à 100 % de la numération fécale des œufs. Un dosage adéquat, une rotation des traitementsutilisés et le traitement sélectif des animaux les plus affectés sont recom- Keywords: Albendazole, efficacy, Ethiopia, helminths,
mandés pour permettre une efficacité à long terme de ces molécules. Prevalence, sheep, tetramisole.
Mots clés : Albendazole, efficacité, Ethiopie, helminthes,
Prévalence, mouton, tetramisole.
Introduction
combination of factors including poor nutrition, health andmanagement practices. Disease is an important factorresponsible for decreased productivity of sheep and accounts In Ethiopia, small ruminants represent an important com- for 30% and 20% mortalities in lambs and adults, respectively ponent of the farming system, providing approximately 12% [16]. Helminth parasites are one of the most economically of the value of livestock products consumed at farm level as important diseases affecting sheep productivity in the country well as 48% of the cash income generated. Small ruminants [4]. Sheep are host to a multiple species of parasitic hel- provide 46% of the value of national meat production and minths that cause varying degrees of disease, ranging from 58% of the value of hide and skin production and are an inte- chronic forms associated with diarrhea, anemia and weight gral part of production systems in which they serve various loss to highly acute infections resulting in sudden death [3].
Infection with helminth parasites results in clinical and sub-clinical diseases causing low productivity due to stunted In spite of this huge livestock resource, their productivity growth, insufficient weight gain, poor feed utilization and is very low [1]. This decreased productivity is the result of a Revue Méd. Vét., 2011, 162, 2, 55-58
The prevalence of different helminth parasites has been of greater than or equal to 200 in prevalence study were studied in different parts of the country [4; 14]; however, the selected. All animals selected for anthelmintic efficacy trial prevalence and impact of helminth parasites as well as their from the three PAs were allocated into 5 groups of 15-16 animals sensitivity to the commonly used anthelmintics have not each by blocking using FEC conducted before treatment so been studied in some parts of the country like Jeldu district.
that the mean FEC per each group was nearly uniform. Each The current study was conducted to investigate the prevalence group was then randomly allocated into one of the four of the major helminth parasites of sheep in Jeldu district, and anthelmintic groups and one untreated control group.
to evaluate the efficacy of selected anthelmintics commonly Animals in each treatment group were treated by respective available in Ethiopian markets against nematodes in naturally drugs according to manufacturers' recommendation.
The anthelmintics used in the present study were bought from the retail markets and composed of three drug classes.
Table 1 summarizes the anthelmintic brands used, the manu- Materials and Methods
facturers and the manufacturers’ recommended doses. Theanimals were treated with the respective anthelmintics dosageas per the recommendations of the manufacturers according to the weight of each individual animal.
The study was conducted in Jeldu district ; West Showa Zone of Oromia Regional State, located 125 km west of AddisAbaba. This is predominantly highland area with a few mid- SAMPLE COLLECTION AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATION land and lowland areas. Farming in the district is mixed andinvolves both livestock and crop production. According to Identification of helminth eggs was performed using simple the information obtained from the office of Jeldu District floatation and sedimentation techniques. The quantitative Livestock Agency, the population of small ruminants in the fecal egg count used the McMaster egg count technique [9].
district is 67581 of which 47235 are sheep and 20346 are The degree of severity of infection was also estimated accor- goats. Specific study sites chosen were Chilanko, Edesa Gelan and Kilbe Peasant Associations (PAs) which are locatedat the radius of 10-15 km from the Gojo town in differentdirections. The three PAs were purposively selected based on their accessibility, high sheep population and the historicaluse of anthelmintics depending on information obtained The prevalence of the different genera of helminth parasites was determined by dividing the number of positive animalsby number of total animals examined and multiplying by100. The prevalence rate of parasites in the three localitieswas compared using chi-square. Efficacy of anthelmintics was calculated using arithmetic mean of FEC of the treated and For the prevalence study, a total of 129 animals of all age untreated animals [6]. E= [1- (T/C)]*100, where E = percentage groups and both sex (45 from Edesa Gelan; 51 from Kilbe; efficacy; C= mean number of eggs in the control group; T= mean and 33 from Chilanko PAs) were randomly selected from different flocks owned by different farmers. The animalswere then ear-tagged for identification purpose. The criteriafor inclusion in the trial were flock size of greater than or equal to 10 sheep, history of anthelmintic usage and farmers'willingness. For anthelmintic efficacy study, animals from Comparative prevalence of helminth parasites of sheep in the three PAs were selected out of the total animals used in the three PAs of Jeldu district and the overall prevalence in prevalence study. Animals with eggs per gram (EPG) count the district is presented in Table 2. Strongyle type nematodes Drug class
Generic name
Trade name
manufacturer
Dose(mg/kg)
*7.5 mg tetramisole and 7.5 mg oxyclozanide. TABLE I: Details of the anthelmintic drugs used in the current study.
Revue Méd. Vét., 2011, 162, 2, 55-58
PREVALENCE OF HELMINTHS AND EFFICACY OF ANTHELMINTICS AGAINST NEMATODES were most prevalent in Edesa Galan followed by Kilbe and Discussion
least prevalent in Chilanko PA. The prevalence of Fasciolaspp. is relatively similar in Chilanko and Kilbe PAs while The current work has shown that helminth parasites of very low prevalence was recorded in Edensa Galan PA. The sheep especially nematodes are highly prevalent (67.4%) in prevalence rate of all parasites were not significantly diffe- Jeldu district. Some of the sheep have been observed to shed rent among the 3 PAs except for strongyle type nematodes large number of strongyle eggs (12,300 eggs). More than which was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Edesa Gelancompared to the other two PAs.
32% of the infected sheep were shedding greater than 1200eggs per gram of faeces which is an indication of heavy Table 3 shows the state of severity of nematode parasite infection with nematode parasites; this can cause emaciation infection as reflected by fecal egg count of strongyle type and decrease in productivity. Moniezia (20.2%) and Fasciola nematodes. The results of the study showed that a majority spp. (11.6%) are the next most prevalent parasites in the area.
(60%) of the infected sheep had a mild infection whereas There is a significant difference in the prevalence of most of only 32% of the positive sheep had a severe infection with the helminths among the three PAs. The most probable reason strongyle type nematodes shedding greater than 1200 eggs for this is the difference in microclimates of the localities.
For example, Kilbe and Edesa Gelan have some marshy The mean FECs of groups of sheep before and after treat- focal areas which are environments conducive for the deve- ment with different anthelmintics are shown in Table 4. All lopment of intermediate host of Fasciola and Paramphistomum drugs except Tetracozash-900 resulted in a 100% reduction spp. This might account for the high prevalence of Fasciola in FEC 10 days post treatment. The percentage reduction of and Paramphistomum spp. in these areas compared to that of Parasite egg
Edesa Gelan
Chilanko
P-value
No examined % positive No examined% positive No examined% positive
prevalence
TABLE II: Prevalence of helminth parasites of sheep in Jeldu district (n=129).
Degree of infection
Moderate
Light = 50 – 800 eggs per gram of faeces Moderate = 800 – 1200 eggs per gram of faecesHeavy > 1200 eggs per gram of faeces TABLE III: Degree of severity of nematodes in infected sheep based on FEC of strongyle type eggs.
Generic name
Trade name
Pre-treatment
Post treatment
Efficacy
Mean±SE
Mean±SE
TABLE IV: Mean faecal egg count of strongyle type nematodes in sheep before and after treatment and percentage reduction on day Revue Méd. Vét., 2011, 162, 2, 55-58
All of the anthelmintics tested in the current study showed 5. - CHAKA H., EGUALE T., GIZAW D., LIDETU D.: Evaluation of the FECR ranging from 98.8 to 100%. This finding shows that efficacy of anthelmintics sold on Ethiopia markets againstHaemonchus contortus in experimentally infected Sheep. Trop. Anim. the drugs used in the current study can be categorized as Hlth. Prod., 2009, 41, 973-979.
highly effective against nematode parasites of sheep in the 6. - COLES G. C., BAUER C., BORGSTEEDE F.H.M., GEERTS S., study area [21]. The fact that some of the sheep owners com- KLEI R., TAYLOR M.A., WALLER P.J.: World Association for the plained lack of production improvement post treatment Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) method for the despite history of frequent deworming led us to suspect the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematode of veterinary impor- emergence of anthelmintic resistance. However, our finding tance. Vet. Parasitol., 1992, 44, 35-44.
justified that the parasites are still susceptible to the evaluated 7. - COLES G.C.: Anthelmintic resistance- looking to the future: a UK anthelmintics. The cause for decreased productivity could be perspective. Res. Vet. Sci. 2005, 78, 99-108.
non-helminth factors such as nutritional or other diseases.
8. - EGUALE T., CHAKA H., GIZAW D.: Efficacy of albendazole The reason why anthelmintics are still working in the area in against nematode parasites isolated from a goat farm in Ethiopia:relationship between dose and efficacy in goats. Trop.Anim. Hlth. spite of frequent treatment could be farmers are either Prod., 2009, 41, 1267-1273.
deworming only severely infected animals from the flock or 9. - HANSEN J., PERRY B: The Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Control even when one treats all animals in his flock frequently, the of Helminth Parasites of Ruminants. International Laboratory for risk of spread of resistance is minimal because frequently Research on Animal Diseases, 1994, Nirobi, Kenya.
treated and untreated animals are usually kept in communal 10. - JABAR A., IQBAL Z., KERBOEUF D., MUHAMMAD G., KHAN M.N., AFAQ M: Anthelmintic resistance: The state of play revisited,
Life sci., 2006, 79, 2413-2431.
So far, anthelmintic efficacy studies conducted in nematodes 11. - KUMSA B., ABEBE G.: Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a goat of sheep and goat owned by smallholder farmers in different farm in Hawassa (southern Ethiopia). Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod., 2009, parts of Ethiopia have revealed similar findings [2, 5, 12, 13, 41, 655-662.
15, 18]. Despite its escalating prevalence in several countries 12. - KUMSA B., NURFETA A.: Comparative effiecacy of albendazole, of the world, especially in small ruminants [7, 10], anthel- tetramisole and ivermectin agaisnt gastrointestinal nematodes in mintic resistance is not yet a serious problem in Ethiopia, naturally infected sheep in Hawassa, southern Ethiopia. Revue Med.
Vet
., 2008, 159, 593-598.
and there are only few reports merely from the University 13. - KUMSA B., TOLERA A., NURFETA A.: Comparative effiecacy of farms [8, 11, 17]. Proper dosing, anthelmintic rotation and seven brands of albendazole agaisnt natrually aquired gastrointestinal selective treatment of those individuals that are most affected nematodes of sheep in Hawassa (southern Ethiopia). Turki. J. Vet. is recommended to maintain the long term efficacy of these 14. - KUMSA B., WOSSENE A.: Abomasal nematodes of small rumi- nants of Ogaden Region, eastern Ethiopia: prevalence, worm burden
and species composition Rev. Med. Vet., 2006, 157, 27-32
15. - KUMSA B., WOSENE A.: Efficacy of Albendazole and Tetramisole Acknowledgments
against Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected lambs.
Intern. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med., 2006, 4, 94-98.
The authors would like to thank National Animal Health 16. - MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE (MOA). Sheep production project Diagnostic and Investigation Centre for provision of financial main report. Australian Agricultural Consulting and Management support for the field work and for allowing the use of labo- Company Limited, 1985, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
ratory facilities. We are also grateful to staff members of 17. - SISAY M., ASEFA A, UGGLA A., WALLER J.: Anthelmintic resis- tance of nematode parasites of small ruminants in eastern Ethiopia: Jeldu District Livestock Agency and the sheep owners for Exploitation of refugia to restore anthelmintic efficacy. Vet. their unreserved cooperation during field work.
Parasitol., 2006, 135, 337-346.
18. - SISAY M., ASEFA A., UGGLA A., WALLER J.: Assessment of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep and goats References
owned by smallholder farmers in eastern Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Hlth.
Prod.,
2006, 38, 215-222.
1. - ABEBE M., ALEMU Y., HEGDE P.B.: Growth performance and 19. - SOULSBY E.J.: Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of mortality of Menz sheep in the traditional sector of Lallo Mama Domesticated Animals, 809 pages, 8th edition, Balliere, Tindall, Mider Woreda, North Shoa. Proceedings, of 8th Annual Conference of Ethiopian Society for Animal Production (ESAP). 25-26 August 20. - TEMBELY S., LAHLOU-KASSI A., REG J.E.O., SOVANI S., DIEDHIOU M.L. and BAKER R.L.: The epidemiology of nemato- 2. - ASMARE K., GELAYE E., AYELET G.: Anthelmintic resistance test de infections in sheep in a cool tropical environment. Vet. Parasitol., in gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in southern 1997, 70, 129-141.
Ethiopia. Bull. Ani. Helth. Prod. Afri., 2005, 53, 89-95.
21. - WOOD I.B., AMARAL N.K., BAIRDEN K., DUNCAN J.L., KAS- 3. - AYALEW T. A.: Preliminary survey of sheep helminthosis in Kembebit SAI T., MALONE J.B. PANKAVICH J.A., REINECKE R.K., SLO- district, North West Shoa. Proceedings of the 9th Annual Conference.
COMBE O., TAYLOR S.M., VERCRUYSSE J.: World Association Ethiopian Veterinary Association. 1995. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.), 4. - BIFFA D., JOBRE Y., CHAKA, H.: Ovine helminthosis, a major Second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthel- health constraint to productivity of sheep in Ethiopia. Ani. Hlth. Res. mintics in ruminants (bovine, ovine, caprine). Vet. Parasitol., 1995, Rev., 2006, 7, 107-118.
58, 181-213.
Revue Méd. Vét., 2011, 162, 2, 55-58

Source: http://www.revmedvet.com/2011/RMV162_55_58.pdf

hartforddocs.net

In October, 1996, Hartford Hospital became the first hospital in Connecticut with a Bloodless Medicine and Surgery Program. Our uses of safe and effective transfusion free medical and surgical techniques reduce many of the risk associated with blood transfusions. Through a multidisciplinary approach to patient care, complex procedures such as cardiac surgery, aortic aneurysm repa

Microsoft word - malaria.doc

Malaria is an infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. It infects between 300 and 500 million people every year and causes between one and three million deaths annually, mostly among young children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is not just a disease commonly associated with poverty, but is also a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development. Ma

Copyright © 2010-2014 Drugstore Pdf Search