Details of cancer screenings
Details of Prostate Cancer Screenings
refers to tests and exams used to find a disease, such as cancer, in people who do not have any symptoms. The goal of screening exams is to find cancers before they start to cause symptoms. For some types of cancer, screening can help find cancers in an early stage when they are more easily cured. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer, other than skin cancers, in American men. Since the use of early detection tests for prostate cancer became fairly common (about 1990), the prostate cancer death rate has dropped. But it has not been proven that this is a direct result of screening. If prostate cancer is found during screening with the PSA test or DRE, your cancer will likely be at an early, more treatable stage than if no screening were done. Since the use of early detection tests for prostate cancer became fairly common (about 1990), the prostate cancer death rate has dropped. But it isn't yet clear if this drop is a direct result of screening or caused by something else, like improvements in treatment. There are limits to the prostate cancer screening tests used today. Neither the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test nor the digital rectal exam (DRE) is 100% accurate. These tests can have abnormal results even when cancer is not present (known as false positive results). In addition, normal results can occur even when cancer is present (known as false negative results). Unclear test results can cause confusion and anxiety. False positive results can lead some men to undergo a prostate biopsy (with risks of pain, infection, and bleeding) when cancer is not present. And false negative results may give some men a false sense of security even though they actually have cancer. There is no question that the PSA test can help spot many prostate cancers early, but another important issue is that the test cannot tell how dangerous the cancer is. Finding and treating all prostate cancers early may seem like a no-brainer. But some prostate cancers grow so slowly that they would likely never cause problems. Because of an elevated PSA level, some men may be diagnosed with a prostate cancer that they would have never even known about at all. It would never have caused any symptoms or lead to their death. But they may still be treated with either surgery or radiation, either because the health care professional cannot be sure how aggressive (fast growing and fast spreading) the cancer might be, or because the men are uncomfortable not having any treatment. Treatments like surgery and radiation can have side effects that seriously affect a man's quality of life. These treatments can lead to urinary, bowel, and/or sexual problems. In some men these problems may be minimal and/or short-term, but for others these problems can be severe and long-lasting (or even permanent). Health care professionals and patients are still struggling to decide who should receive treatment and who might be able to be followed without being treated right away (an approach called watchful waiting or active surveillance). Even when patients are not treated right away, they still need regular blood tests and prostate biopsies to determine the need for future treatment. These tests are linked with risks of anxiety, pain, infection, and bleeding. Studies are being done to try to figure out if early detection tests for prostate cancer in large groups of men will lower the prostate cancer death rate. The most recent results from 2 large studies were conflicting, and did not offer clear answers. Early results from a study done in the United States found that annual screening with PSA and DRE detected more prostate cancers, but it did not lower the death rate from prostate cancer. A European study did find a
lower risk of death from prostate cancer with PSA screening (done about once every 4 years), but the researchers estimated that about 1,400 men would need to be screened (and 48 treated) in order to prevent one death from prostate cancer. Neither of these studies has shown that PSA screening helps men live longer (lowered the overall death rate). Prostate cancer tends to be a slow growing cancer, so the effects of screening in these studies may become clearer in the coming years. Both of these studies are being continued to see if longer follow-up will give clearer results. At this time, the ACS recommends that men thinking about prostate cancer screening should make informed decisions based on available information, discussion with their health care professional, and their own views on the benefits and side effects of screening and treatment. Until more information is available, you and your health care professional can decide whether you should have tests to screen for prostate cancer. There are many factors to take into account, including your age and health. If you are young and develop prostate cancer, it may shorten your life if it is not caught early. If you are older or in poor health, then prostate cancer may never become a major problem for you because it is often a slow-growing cancer. For additional information on prostate cancer screenings, please vi
Clinical Tests That Can Find Prostate Cancer
1) Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Blood Test
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a substance made by cells in the prostate gland (it is made by normal cells and cancer cells). Although PSA is mostly found in semen, a small amount is also found in the blood. Most healthy men have levels under 4 ng/mL of blood. The chance of having prostate cancer goes up as the PSA level goes up.
When prostate cancer develops, the PSA level usually goes above 4. Still, a level below 4 does not mean that cancer is not present -- about 15% of men with a PSA below 4 will have prostate cancer on biopsy. Men with a PSA level in the borderline range
between 4 and 10, have about a 1 in 4 chance of having prostate cancer. If the PSA is more than 10, the chance of having prostate cancer is over 50%.
The PSA level can also be increased by things other than prostate cancer, such as:
An enlarged prostate
, such as with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a non-cancerous enlargement of the
prostate that many men get as they grow older
PSA levels will also normally go up slowly as you get older, even if you have no prostate abnormality. Infection or inflammation
of the prostate gland (prostatitis) Ejaculation
can cause the PSA to go up for a short time, and then go down again. This is why some
healthcare professionals will suggest that men abstain from ejaculation for 2 days before testing.
Riding a bicycle
Certain urologic procedures
Some things cause PSA levels to go down (even when cancer is present), including:
used to treat BPH or urinary symptoms, such as finasteride (Proscar or Propecia) or
dutasteride (Avodart). You should tell your healthcare professional if you are taking these medicines, because they will lower PSA levels and require the healthcare professional to adjust the reading.
Some herbal mixtures
that are sold as dietary supplements may also mask a high PSA level. This is why it
is important to let your healthcare professional know if you are taking any type of supplement, even ones that are not necessarily meant for prostate health. Saw palmetto (an herb used by some men to treat BPH) does not seem to interfere with the measurement of PSA.
may also change PSA levels Obesity:
Obese men tend to have lower PSA levels Aspirin:
Men taking aspirin regularly tend to have lower PSA levels. This effect is most pronounced in non-
If your PSA level is high, your health care professional may advise a prostate biopsy to find out if you have cancer. Some health care professionals may consider using newer types of PSA tests (discussed below) to help determine if you need a prostate biopsy, but not all health care professionals agree on how to use these other PSA tests. If your PSA test result is not normal, ask your health care professional to discuss your cancer risk and your need for further tests.
2) Percent-free Prostate-Specific Antigen
PSA occurs in 2 major forms in the blood. One form is attached to blood proteins while the other circulates free
(unattached). The percent-free PSA (fPSA) is the ratio of how much PSA circulates free compared to the total
PSA level. The percentage of free PSA is lower in men who have prostate cancer than in men who do not.
This test is sometimes used to help decide if you should have a prostate biopsy if your PSA results are in the
borderline range (between 4 and 10). A lower percent-free PSA means that your likelihood of having prostate
cancer is higher and you should probably have a biopsy. Many health care professionals recommend biopsies for
men whose percent-free PSA is 10% or less, and advise that men consider a biopsy if it is between 10% and
25%. Using these cutoffs detects most cancers while helping some men to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsies.
This test is widely used, but not all health care professionals agree that 25% is the best cutoff point to decide on
A newer test, known as complexed PSA, measures the amount of PSA that is attached to other proteins. This test
is described in more detail Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity
The PSA velocity is not a separate test. It is a measure of how fast the PSA rises over time. Normally, PSA
levels go up slowly with age. Experts noticed that these levels can go up faster when cancer is present. When
this issue was looked at further, though, studies showed that the PSA velocity was not more helpful than the
PSA itself in finding prostate cancer. For this reason, the most recent ACS guideline on early detection of
prostate cancer does not recommend using the PSA velocity. Prostate-Specific Antigen Density
PSA levels are higher in men with larger prostate glands. The PSA density (PSAD) is sometimes used for men
with large prostate glands to try to adjust for this. The health care professional measures the volume (size) of the
prostate gland with transrectal ultrasound (discussed below) and divides the PSA number by the prostate
volume. A higher PSA density (PSAD) indicates greater likelihood of cancer. PSA density has not been shown
to be that useful. The percent-free PSA test has so far been shown to be more accurate.
Age-Specific Prostate-Specific Antigen Ranges
PSA levels are normally higher in older men than in younger men, even when there is no cancer. A PSA result
within the borderline range might be very worrisome in a 50-year-old man but cause less concern in an 80-year-
old man. For this reason, some health care professionals have suggested comparing PSA results with results
from other men of the same age.
But because the usefulness of age-specific PSA ranges is not well proven, most health care professionals and professional organizations (as well as the makers of the PSA tests) do not recommend their use at this time.
3) Digital Rectal Exam (DRE)
For a digital rectal exam (DRE), a health care professional inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to feel for any bumps or hard areas on the prostate that might be cancer. The prostate gland is found just in front of the rectum, and most cancers begin in the back part of the gland, which can be felt during a rectal exam. This exam is uncomfortable, but it isn't painful and only takes a short time.
DRE is less effective than the PSA blood test in finding prostate cancer, but it can sometimes find cancers in men with normal PSA levels. For this reason, it may be included as a part of prostate cancer screening.
The DRE can also be used once a man is known to have prostate cancer to try to determine if it may have spread to nearby tissues and to detect cancer that has come back after treatment.
4) Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS)
Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) uses sound waves to make an image of the prostate on a video screen. For this test, a small probe that gives off sound waves is placed in the rectum. The sound waves enter the prostate and create echoes that are picked up by the probe. A computer turns the pattern of echoes into a black and white image of the prostate.
The procedure takes only a few minutes and is done in a health care professional's office or outpatient clinic. You will feel some pressure when the TRUS probe is placed in your rectum, but it is usually not painful.
TRUS is not used as a screening test for prostate cancer because it doesn't often show early cancer. Instead, it is most commonly used during a prostate biopsy (described in the next section). TRUS is used to guide the biopsy needles into the right area of the prostate.
TRUS is useful in other situations as well. It can be used to measure the size of the prostate gland, which can help determine the PSA density and may also affect which treatment options a man has. It is also used as a guide during some forms of treatment such as cryosurgery.
TUMS or NEXIUM July 11th, 2007 Timothy J. Gramatovich, CFA While the bond markets as a whole performed poorly, stocks took flight, launching them firmly into positive territory. We held together reasonably well in what is likely turning out to be the first phase of an overdue beating in bonds and loans. It has been a long time since we have seen discounts in what we feel are absolute
Climate change and its impact on health in Bangladesh Climate change affects human health both directly and indirectly. People are exposed This background paper was prepared for a workshop on Climate Change and Health in (temperature, precipitation, sea-level rise and Bangladesh, held on 19–20 November 2007 more frequent extreme events) and indirectly through changes in the quality of wa