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(atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride)
(atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride)
MALARONE (atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride) is a fixed-dose combination of the
antimalarial agents atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride. The chemical name of atovaquone
-2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)cyclohexyl]-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione. Atovaquone is a
yellow crystalline solid that is practically insoluble in water. It has a molecular weight of 366.84
and the molecular formula C22H19ClO3. The compound has the following structural formula:
The chemical name of proguanil hydrochloride is 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-isopropyl-biguanide hydrochloride. Proguanil hydrochloride is a white crystalline solid that is sparingly soluble in water. It has a molecular weight of 290.22 and the molecular formula C11H16ClN5•HCl. The compound has the following structural formula:
MALARONE Tablets and MALARONE Pediatric Tablets are for oral administration. Each MALARONE Tablet contains 250 mg of atovaquone and 100 mg of proguanil hydrochloride and each MALARONE Pediatric Tablet contains 62.5 mg of atovaquone and 25 mg of proguanil hydrochloride. The inactive ingredients in both tablets are low-substituted hydroxypropyl
cellulose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, poloxamer 188, povidone K30, and sodium starch glycolate. The tablet coating contains hypromellose, polyethylene glycol 400, polyethylene glycol 8000, red iron oxide, and titanium dioxide.
Microbiology: Mechanism of Action:
The constituents of MALARONE, atovaquone and
proguanil hydrochloride, interfere with 2 different pathways involved in the biosynthesis of
pyrimidines required for nucleic acid replication. Atovaquone is a selective inhibitor of parasite
mitochondrial electron transport. Proguanil hydrochloride primarily exerts its effect by means of
the metabolite cycloguanil, a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor. Inhibition of dihydrofolate
reductase in the malaria parasite disrupts deoxythymidylate synthesis. Activity In Vitro and In Vivo:
Atovaquone and cycloguanil (an active metabolite of
proguanil) are active against the erythrocytic and exoerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium
Enhanced efficacy of the combination compared to either atovaquone or proguanil hydrochloride
alone was demonstrated in clinical studies in both immune and non-immune patients (see
Strains of P. falciparum
with decreased susceptibility to atovaquone or
proguanil/cycloguanil alone can be selected in vitro or in vivo. The combination of atovaquone
and proguanil hydrochloride may not be effective for treatment of recrudescent malaria that
develops after prior therapy with the combination. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption:
Atovaquone is a highly lipophilic compound with low
aqueous solubility. The bioavailability of atovaquone shows considerable inter-individual
Dietary fat taken with atovaquone increases the rate and extent of absorption, increasing AUC
2 to 3 times and Cmax 5 times over fasting. The absolute bioavailability of the tablet formulation
of atovaquone when taken with food is 23%. MALARONE Tablets should be taken with food or
a milky drink.
Proguanil hydrochloride is extensively absorbed regardless of food intake. Distribution:
Atovaquone is highly protein bound (>99%) over the concentration range of 1
to 90 mcg/mL. A population pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that the apparent volume of
distribution of atovaquone (V/F) in adult and pediatric patients after oral administration is
approximately 8.8 L/kg.
Proguanil is 75% protein bound. A population pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that the
apparent V/F of proguanil in adult and pediatric patients >15 years of age with body weights
from 31 to 110 kg ranged from 1,617 to 2,502 L. In pediatric patients ≤15 years of age with body
weights from 11 to 56 kg, the V/F of proguanil ranged from 462 to 966 L.
In human plasma, the binding of atovaquone and proguanil was unaffected by the presence of
the other. Metabolism:
In a study where 14C-labeled atovaquone was administered to healthy
volunteers, greater than 94% of the dose was recovered as unchanged atovaquone in the feces
over 21 days. There was little or no excretion of atovaquone in the urine (less than 0.6%). There
is indirect evidence that atovaquone may undergo limited metabolism; however, a specific
metabolite has not been identified. Between 40% to 60% of proguanil is excreted by the kidneys.
Proguanil is metabolized to cycloguanil (primarily via CYP2C19) and 4-chlorophenylbiguanide.
The main routes of elimination are hepatic biotransformation and renal excretion. Elimination:
The elimination half-life of atovaquone is about 2 to 3 days in adult patients.
The elimination half-life of proguanil is 12 to 21 hours in both adult patients and pediatric
patients, but may be longer in individuals who are slow metabolizers.
A population pharmacokinetic analysis in adult and pediatric patients showed that the
apparent clearance (CL/F) of both atovaquone and proguanil are related to the body weight. The
values CL/F for both atovaquone and proguanil in subjects with body weight ≥11 kg are shown
in Table 1. Table 1. Apparent Clearance for Atovaquone and Proguanil in Patients as a Function of
The pharmacokinetics of atovaquone and proguanil in patients with body weight below 11 kg
have not been adequately characterized. Special Populations: Pediatrics:
The pharmacokinetics of proguanil and cycloguanil are
similar in adult patients and pediatric patients. However, the elimination half-life of atovaquone
is shorter in pediatric patients (1 to 2 days) than in adult patients (2 to 3 days). In clinical trials,
plasma trough levels of atovaquone and proguanil in pediatric patients weighing 5 to 40 kg were
within the range observed in adults after dosing by body weight. Geriatrics:
In a single-dose study, the pharmacokinetics of atovaquone, proguanil, and
cycloguanil were compared in 13 elderly subjects (age 65 to 79 years) to 13 younger subjects
(age 30 to 45 years). In the elderly subjects, the extent of systemic exposure (AUC) of
cycloguanil was increased (point estimate = 2.36, CI = 1.70, 3.28). Tmax was longer in elderly
subjects (median 8 hours) compared with younger subjects (median 4 hours) and average
elimination half-life was longer in elderly subjects (mean 14.9 hours) compared with younger
subjects (mean 8.3 hours). Hepatic Impairment:
In a single-dose study, the pharmacokinetics of atovaquone,
proguanil, and cycloguanil were compared in 13 subjects with hepatic impairment (9 mild,
4 moderate, as indicated by the Child-Pugh method) to 13 subjects with normal hepatic function.
In subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment as compared to healthy subjects, there
were no marked differences (<50%) in the rate or extent of systemic exposure of atovaquone.
However, in subjects with moderate
hepatic impairment, the elimination half-life of atovaquone
was increased (point estimate = 1.28, 90% CI = 1.00 to 1.63). Proguanil AUC, Cmax, and its t1/2
increased in subjects with mild hepatic impairment when compared to healthy subjects (Table 2).
Also, the proguanil AUC and its t1/2 increased in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment
when compared to healthy subjects. Consistent with the increase in proguanil AUC, there were
marked decreases in the systemic exposure of cycloguanil (Cmax and AUC) and an increase in its
elimination half-life in subjects with mild hepatic impairment when compared to healthy
volunteers (Table 2). There were few measurable cycloguanil concentrations in subjects with
moderate hepatic impairment (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). The pharmacokinetics
of atovaquone, proguanil, and cycloguanil after administration of MALARONE have not been
studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Table 2. Point Estimates (90% CI) for Proguanil and Cycloguanil Parameters in Subjects
With Mild and Moderate Hepatic Impairment Compared to Healthy Volunteers
ND = not determined due to lack of quantifiable data. * Ratio of geometric means. †
In patients with mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance 50 to
80 mL/min), oral clearance and/or AUC data for atovaquone, proguanil, and cycloguanil are
within the range of values observed in patients with normal renal function (creatinine clearance
>80 mL/min). In patients with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance 30 to
50 mL/min), mean oral clearance for proguanil was reduced by approximately 35% compared
with patients with normal renal function (creatinine clearance >80 mL/min) and the oral
clearance of atovaquone was comparable between patients with normal renal function and mild
renal impairment. No data exist on the use of MALARONE for long-term prophylaxis (over
2 months) in individuals with moderate renal failure. In patients with severe renal impairment
(creatinine clearance <30 mL/min), atovaquone Cmax and AUC are reduced but the elimination
half-lives for proguanil and cycloguanil are prolonged, with corresponding increases in AUC,
resulting in the potential of drug accumulation and toxicity with repeated dosing (see
CONTRAINDICATIONS). Drug Interactions:
There are no pharmacokinetic interactions between atovaquone and
proguanil at the recommended dose.
Concomitant treatment with tetracycline
has been associated with approximately a 40%
reduction in plasma concentrations of atovaquone.
Concomitant treatment with metoclopramide
has also been associated with decreased
bioavailability of atovaquone.
Concomitant administration of rifampin
is known to reduce atovaquone levels
by approximately 50% and 34%, respectively (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions). The
mechanisms of these interactions are unknown.
Concomitant administration of atovaquone (750 mg BID with food for 14 days) and indinavir
(800 mg TID without food for 14 days) did not result in any change in the steady-state AUC and
Cmax of indinavir but resulted in a decrease in the Ctrough of indinavir (23% decrease [90% CI 8%,
35%]). Caution should be exercised when prescribing atovaquone with indinavir due to the
decrease in trough levels of indinavir.
Atovaquone is highly protein bound (>99%) but does not displace other highly protein-bound
drugs in vitro, indicating significant drug interactions arising from displacement are unlikely (see
PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions). Proguanil is metabolized primarily by CYP2C19. Potential
pharmacokinetic interactions with other substrates or inhibitors of this pathway are unknown.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Prevention of Malaria:
MALARONE is indicated for the prophylaxis of P. falciparum
malaria, including in areas where chloroquine resistance has been reported (see CLINICAL
STUDIES). Treatment of Malaria:
MALARONE is indicated for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated P. falciparum
malaria. MALARONE has been shown to be effective in regions where the drugs
chloroquine, halofantrine, mefloquine, and amodiaquine may have unacceptable failure rates,
presumably due to drug resistance.
MALARONE is contraindicated in individuals with known hypersensitivity to atovaquone or
proguanil hydrochloride or any component of the formulation. Rare cases of anaphylaxis
following treatment with atovaquone/proguanil have been reported.
MALARONE is contraindicated for prophylaxis of P. falciparum
malaria in patients with
severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min) (see CLINICAL
PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations: Renal Impairment).
MALARONE has not been evaluated for the treatment of cerebral malaria or other
severe manifestations of complicated malaria, including hyperparasitemia, pulmonary edema, or
renal failure. Patients with severe malaria are not candidates for oral therapy.
Elevated liver function tests and rare cases of hepatitis have been reported with prophylactic
use of MALARONE. A single case of hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation has also
been reported with prophylactic use.
Absorption of atovaquone may be reduced in patients with diarrhea or vomiting. If
MALARONE is used in patients who are vomiting (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION),
parasitemia should be closely monitored and the use of an antiemetic considered. Vomiting
occurred in up to 19% of pediatric patients given treatment doses of MALARONE. In the
controlled clinical trials of MALARONE, 15.3% of adults who were treated with
atovaquone/proguanil received an antiemetic drug during that part of the trial when they received
atovaquone/proguanil. Of these patients, 98.3% were successfully treated. In patients with severe
or persistent diarrhea or vomiting, alternative antimalarial therapy may be required.
Parasite relapse occurred commonly when P. vivax
malaria was treated with MALARONE
In the event of recrudescent P. falciparum
infections after treatment with MALARONE or
failure of chemoprophylaxis with MALARONE, patients should be treated with a different blood
schizonticide. Information for Patients:
Patients should be instructed:
• to take MALARONE tablets at the same time each day with food or a milky drink.
• to take a repeat dose of MALARONE if vomiting occurs within 1 hour after dosing.
• to take a dose as soon as possible if a dose is missed, then return to their normal dosing
schedule. However, if a dose is skipped, the patient should not double the next dose.
• that rare serious adverse events such as hepatitis, severe skin reactions, neurological, and
hematological events have been reported when MALARONE was used for the prophylaxis or treatment of malaria.
• to consult a healthcare professional regarding alternative forms of prophylaxis if prophylaxis
with MALARONE is prematurely discontinued for any reason.
• that protective clothing, insect repellents, and bednets are important components of malaria
• that no chemoprophylactic regimen is 100% effective; therefore, patients should seek
medical attention for any febrile illness that occurs during or after return from a malaria-endemic area and inform their healthcare professional that they may have been exposed to malaria.
• that falciparum malaria carries a higher risk of death and serious complications in pregnant
women than in the general population. Pregnant women anticipating travel to malarious areas should discuss the risks and benefits of such travel with their physicians (see Pregnancy section).
Concomitant treatment with tetracycline
has been associated with
approximately a 40% reduction in plasma concentrations of atovaquone. Parasitemia should be
closely monitored in patients receiving tetracycline. While antiemetics may be indicated for
patients receiving MALARONE, metoclopramide
may reduce the bioavailability of atovaquone
and should be used only if other antiemetics are not available.
Concomitant administration of rifampin
is known to reduce atovaquone levels
by approximately 50% and 34%, respectively. The concomitant administration of MALARONE
and rifampin or rifabutin is not recommended.
Proguanil may potentiate the anticoagulant effect of warfarin and other coumarin-based
anticoagulants. The mechanism of this potential drug interaction has not been established.
Caution is advised when initiating or withdrawing malaria prophylaxis or treatment with
MALARONE in patients on continuous treatment with coumarin-based anticoagulants. When
these products are administered concomitantly, suitable coagulation tests should be closely
Atovaquone is highly protein bound (>99%) but does not displace other highly protein-bound
drugs in vitro, indicating significant drug interactions arising from displacement are unlikely.
Potential interactions between proguanil or cycloguanil and other drugs that are CYP2C19
substrates or inhibitors are unknown. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility:
Carcinogenicity studies in rats were negative; 24-month studies in mice
showed treatment-related increases in incidence of hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular
carcinoma at all doses tested which ranged from approximately 5 to 8 times the average
steady-state plasma concentrations in humans during prophylaxis of malaria. Atovaquone was
negative with or without metabolic activation in the Ames Salmonella
mutagenicity assay, the
Mouse Lymphoma mutagenesis assay, and the Cultured Human Lymphocyte cytogenetic assay.
No evidence of genotoxicity was observed in the in vivo Mouse Micronucleus assay. Proguanil:
No evidence of a carcinogenic effect was observed in 24-month studies
conducted in CD-1 mice (doses up to 1.5 times the average systemic human exposure based on
AUC) and in Wistar Hannover rats (doses up to 1.1 times the average systemic human exposure).
Proguanil was negative with or without metabolic activation in the Ames Salmonella
mutagenicity assay and the Mouse Lymphoma mutagenesis assay. No evidence of genotoxicity
was observed in the in vivo Mouse Micronucleus assay.
Cycloguanil, the active metabolite of proguanil, was also negative in the Ames test, but was
positive in the Mouse Lymphoma assay and the Mouse Micronucleus assay. These positive
effects with cycloguanil, a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, were significantly reduced or
abolished with folinic acid supplementation.
A fertility study in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed no adverse effects at doses up to
16 mg/kg/day of proguanil hydrochloride (up to 0.2-times the average human exposure based on
AUC comparisons.) Fertility studies of proguanil in animals at exposures similar to or greater
than those observed in humans have not been conducted.
Genotoxicity studies have not been performed with atovaquone in combination with
proguanil. Effects of MALARONE on male and female reproductive performance are unknown. Pregnancy:
Pregnancy Category C. Falciparum malaria carries a higher risk of morbidity and
mortality in pregnant women than in the general population. Maternal death and fetal loss are
both known complications of falciparum malaria in pregnancy. In pregnant women who must
travel to malaria-endemic areas, personal protection against mosquito bites should always be
employed (see Information for Patients) in addition to antimalarials.
Atovaquone was not teratogenic and did not cause reproductive toxicity in rats at maternal
plasma concentrations up to 5 to 6.5 times the estimated human exposure during treatment of
malaria. Following single-dose administration of 14C-labeled atovaquone to pregnant rats,
concentrations of radiolabel in rat fetuses were 18% (mid-gestation) and 60% (late gestation) of
concurrent maternal plasma concentrations. In rabbits, atovaquone caused maternal toxicity at
plasma concentrations that were approximately 0.6 to 1.3 times the estimated human exposure
during treatment of malaria. Adverse fetal effects in rabbits, including decreased fetal body
lengths and increased early resorptions and post-implantation losses, were observed only in the
presence of maternal toxicity. Concentrations of atovaquone in rabbit fetuses averaged 30% of
the concurrent maternal plasma concentrations.
A pre- and post-natal study in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed no adverse effects at doses up to
16 mg/kg/day of proguanil hydrochloride (up to 0.2-times the average human exposure based on
AUC comparisons). Pre- and post-natal studies of proguanil in animals at exposures similar to or
greater than those observed in humans have not been conducted.
The combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride was not teratogenic in rats at
plasma concentrations up to 1.7 and 0.10 times, respectively, the estimated human exposure
during treatment of malaria. In rabbits, the combination of atovaquone and proguanil
hydrochloride was not teratogenic or embryotoxic to rabbit fetuses at plasma concentrations up
to 0.34 and 0.82 times, respectively, the estimated human exposure during treatment of malaria.
While there are no adequate and well-controlled studies of atovaquone and/or proguanil
hydrochloride in pregnant women, MALARONE may be used if the potential benefit justifies the
potential risk to the fetus. The proguanil component of MALARONE acts by inhibiting the
parasitic dihydrofolate reductase (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Microbiology:
Mechanism of Action). However, there are no clinical data indicating that folate supplementation
diminishes drug efficacy, and for women of childbearing age receiving folate supplements to
prevent neural tube birth defects, such supplements may be continued while taking
MALARONE. Nursing Mothers:
It is not known whether atovaquone is excreted into human milk. In a rat
study, atovaquone concentrations in the milk were 30% of the concurrent atovaquone
concentrations in the maternal plasma.
Proguanil is excreted into human milk in small quantities.
Caution should be exercised when MALARONE is administered to a nursing woman.
Pediatric Use: Treatment of Malaria:
The efficacy and safety of MALARONE for the
treatment of malaria have been established in controlled studies involving pediatric patients
weighing 5 kg or more (see CLINICAL STUDIES). Safety and effectiveness have not been
established in pediatric patients who weigh less than 5 kg. Prophylaxis of Malaria:
The efficacy and safety of MALARONE have been established
for the prophylaxis of malaria in controlled studies involving pediatric patients weighing 11 kg
or more (see CLINICAL STUDIES). Safety and effectiveness have not been established in
pediatric patients who weigh less than 11 kg. Geriatric Use:
Clinical studies of MALARONE did not include sufficient numbers of subjects
aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In
general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency
of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, the higher systemic exposure to cycloguanil (see
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations: Geriatrics), and the greater frequency of
concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Because MALARONE contains atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride, the type and
severity of adverse reactions associated with each of the compounds may be expected. The
higher treatment doses of MALARONE were less well tolerated than the lower prophylactic
Among adults who received MALARONE for treatment of malaria, attributable adverse
experiences that occurred in ≥5% of patients were abdominal pain (17%), nausea (12%),
vomiting (12%), headache (10%), diarrhea (8%), asthenia (8%), anorexia (5%), and dizziness
(5%). Treatment was discontinued prematurely due to an adverse experience in 4 of 436 adults
treated with MALARONE.
Among pediatric patients (weighing 11 to 40 kg) who received MALARONE for the
treatment of malaria, attributable adverse experiences that occurred in ≥5% of patients were
vomiting (10%) and pruritus (6%). Vomiting occurred in 43 of 319 (13%) pediatric patients who
did not have symptomatic malaria but were given treatment doses of MALARONE for 3 days in
a clinical trial. The design of this clinical trial required that any patient who vomited be
withdrawn from the trial. Among pediatric patients with symptomatic malaria treated with
MALARONE, treatment was discontinued prematurely due to an adverse experience in 1 of 116
In a study of 100 pediatric patients (5 to <11 kg body weight) who received MALARONE for
the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum
malaria, only diarrhea (6%) occurred in ≥5% of
patients as an adverse experience attributable to MALARONE. In 3 patients (3%), treatment was
discontinued prematurely due to an adverse experience.
Abnormalities in laboratory tests reported in clinical trials were limited to elevations of
transaminases in malaria patients being treated with MALARONE. The frequency of these
abnormalities varied substantially across studies of treatment and were not observed in the randomized portions of the prophylaxis trials. In one phase III trial of malaria treatment in Thai adults, early elevations of ALT and AST were observed to occur more frequently in patients treated with MALARONE compared to patients treated with an active control drug. Rates for patients who had normal baseline levels of these clinical laboratory parameters were: Day 7: ALT 26.7% vs. 15.6%; AST 16.9% vs. 8.6%. By day 14 of this 28-day study, the frequency of transaminase elevations equalized across the 2 groups. In this and other studies in which transaminase elevations occurred, they were noted to persist for up to 4 weeks following treatment with MALARONE for malaria. None were associated with untoward clinical events. Among subjects who received MALARONE for prophylaxis of malaria in placebo-controlled trials, adverse experiences occurred in similar proportions of subjects receiving MALARONE or placebo (Table 3). The most commonly reported adverse experiences possibly attributable to MALARONE or placebo were headache and abdominal pain. Prophylaxis with MALARONE was discontinued prematurely due to a treatment-related adverse experience in 3 of 381 adults and 0 of 125 pediatric patients.
Table 3. Adverse Experiences in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials of MALARONE for
Prophylaxis of Malaria
Percent of Subjects With Adverse Experiences
(Percent of Subjects With Adverse Experiences Attributable to Therapy)
Subjects receiving the recommended dose of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride in placebo-controlled trials.
Subjects receiving the recommended dose of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride in any trial.
In an additional placebo-controlled study of malaria prophylaxis with MALARONE involving 330 pediatric patients in a malaria-endemic area (see CLINICAL STUDIES), the safety profile of MALARONE was consistent with that described above. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events with MALARONE were abdominal pain (13%), headache (13%), and cough (10%). Abdominal pain (13% vs. 8%) and vomiting (5% vs. 3%) were reported more often with MALARONE than with placebo, while fever (5% vs. 12%) and diarrhea (1% vs. 5%) were more common with placebo. No patient withdrew from the study due to an adverse experience with MALARONE. No routine laboratory data were obtained during this study. Among subjects who received MALARONE for prophylaxis of malaria in clinical trials with an active comparator, adverse experiences occurred in a similar or lower proportion of subjects receiving MALARONE than an active comparator (Table 4). The mean durations of dosing and
the periods for which the adverse experiences are summarized in Table 4, were 28 days (Study 1) and 26 days (Study 2) for MALARONE, 53 days for mefloquine, and 49 days for chloroquine plus proguanil (reflecting the different recommended dosing regimens). Fewer neuropsychiatric adverse experiences occurred in subjects who received MALARONE than mefloquine. Fewer gastrointestinal adverse experiences occurred in subjects receiving MALARONE than chloroquine/proguanil. Compared with active comparator drugs, subjects receiving MALARONE had fewer adverse experiences overall that were attributed to prophylactic therapy (Table 4). Prophylaxis with MALARONE was discontinued prematurely due to a treatment-related adverse experience in 7 of 1,004 travelers.
Table 4. Adverse Experiences in Active-Controlled Clinical Trials of MALARONE for
Prophylaxis of Malaria
Percent of Subjects With Adverse Experiences*
(Percent of Subjects With Adverse Experiences Attributable to
<1 (<1) 5 (4) <1 (<1) 1 (<1)
Adverse experiences that started while receiving active study drug.
In a third active-controlled study, MALARONE (n = 110) was compared with chloroquine/proguanil (n = 111) for the prophylaxis of malaria in 221 non-immune pediatric patients (see CLINICAL STUDIES). The mean duration of exposure was 23 days for MALARONE, 46 days for chloroquine, and 43 days for proguanil, reflecting the different recommended dosage regimens for these products. Fewer patients treated with MALARONE reported abdominal pain (2% vs. 7%) or nausea (<1% vs. 7%) than children who received chloroquine/proguanil. Oral ulceration (2% vs. 2%), vivid dreams (2% vs. <1%), and blurred vision (0% vs. 2%) occurred in similar proportions of patients receiving either MALARONE or
chloroquine/proguanil, respectively. Two patients discontinued prophylaxis with
chloroquine/proguanil due to adverse events, while none of those receiving MALARONE
discontinued due to adverse events. Post-Marketing Adverse Reactions:
In addition to adverse events reported from clinical
trials, the following events have been identified during world-wide post-approval use of
MALARONE. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size,
estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a
combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to
MALARONE. Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders:
Neutropenia and rarely anemia. Pancytopenia
in patients with severe renal impairment treated with proguanil. Immune System Disorders:
Allergic reactions including angioedema, urticaria, and rare
cases of anaphylaxis and vasculitis. Nervous System Disorders:
Rare cases of seizures and psychotic events (such as
hallucinations); however, a causal relationship has not been established. Gastrointestinal Disorders:
Elevated liver function tests and rare cases of hepatitis,
cholestasis; a single case of hepatic failure requiring transplant has been reported. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders:
Photosensitivity, rash, and rare cases of
erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
There is no information on overdoses of MALARONE substantially higher than the doses
recommended for treatment.
There is no known antidote for atovaquone, and it is currently unknown if atovaquone is
dialyzable. The median lethal dose is higher than the maximum oral dose tested in mice and rats
(1,825 mg/kg/day). Overdoses up to 31,500 mg of atovaquone have been reported. In one such
patient who also took an unspecified dose of dapsone, methemoglobinemia occurred. Rash has
also been reported after overdose.
Overdoses of proguanil hydrochloride as large as 1,500 mg have been followed by complete
recovery, and doses as high as 700 mg twice daily have been taken for over 2 weeks without
serious toxicity. Adverse experiences occasionally associated with proguanil hydrochloride doses
of 100 to 200 mg/day, such as epigastric discomfort and vomiting, would be likely to occur with
overdose. There are also reports of reversible hair loss and scaling of the skin on the palms
and/or soles, reversible aphthous ulceration, and hematologic side effects.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The daily dose should be taken at the same time each day with food or a milky drink. In the
event of vomiting within 1 hour after dosing, a repeat dose should be taken.
Prevention of Malaria:
Prophylactic treatment with MALARONE should be started 1 or
2 days before entering a malaria-endemic area and continued daily during the stay and for 7 days
after return. Adults:
One MALARONE Tablet (adult strength = 250 mg atovaquone/100 mg proguanil
hydrochloride) per day. Pediatric Patients:
The dosage for prevention of malaria in pediatric patients is based upon
body weight (Table 5). Table 5. Dosage for Prevention of Malaria in Pediatric Patients
2 MALARONE Pediatric Tablets as a single dose daily
3 MALARONE Pediatric Tablets as a single dose daily
1 MALARONE Tablet (adult strength) as a single dose daily
Treatment of Acute Malaria: Adults:
Four MALARONE Tablets (adult strength; total daily
dose 1 g atovaquone/400 mg proguanil hydrochloride) as a single dose daily for 3 consecutive
days. Pediatric Patients:
The dosage for treatment of acute malaria in pediatric patients is based
upon body weight (Table 6). Table 6. Dosage for Treatment of Acute Malaria in Pediatric Patients
2 MALARONE Pediatric Tablets daily for 3 consecutive days
3 MALARONE Pediatric Tablets daily for 3 consecutive days
1 MALARONE Tablet (adult strength) daily for 3 consecutive days
2 MALARONE Tablets (adult strength) as a single dose daily for 3 consecutive days
3 MALARONE Tablets (adult strength) as a single dose daily for 3 consecutive days
4 MALARONE Tablets (adult strength) as a single dose daily for 3 consecutive days
MALARONE Tablets may be crushed and mixed with condensed milk just prior to administration for children who may have difficulty swallowing tablets.
Patients With Renal Impairment:
MALARONE should not be used for malaria prophylaxis
in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min). MALARONE may
be used with caution for the treatment of malaria in patients with severe renal impairment
(creatinine clearance <30 mL/min), only if the benefits of the 3-day treatment regimen outweigh
the potential risks associated with increased drug exposure (see CLINICAL
PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations: Renal Impairment). No dosage adjustments are
needed in patients with mild (creatinine clearance 50 to 80 mL/min) and moderate (creatinine
clearance 30 to 50 mL/min) renal impairment (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special
Populations). Patients With Hepatic Impairment:
No dosage adjustments are needed in patients with mild
to moderate hepatic impairment. No studies have been conducted in patients with severe hepatic
impairment (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations: Hepatic Impairment).
MALARONE Tablets, containing 250 mg atovaquone and 100 mg proguanil hydrochloride,
are pink, film-coated, round, biconvex tablets engraved with “GX CM3” on one side.
Bottle of 100 tablets with child-resistant closure (NDC 0173-0675-01).
Unit Dose Pack of 24 (NDC 0173-0675-02).
MALARONE Pediatric Tablets, containing 62.5 mg atovaquone and 25 mg proguanil
hydrochloride, are pink, film-coated, round, biconvex tablets engraved with “GX CG7” on one
Bottle of 100 tablets with child-resistant closure (NDC 0173-0676-01). Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) (see USP
Controlled Room Temperature)
Fibrovascular proliferation in the right atrium, pyelonephritis, bone marrow hypocellularity,
lymphoid atrophy, and gastritis/enteritis were observed in dogs treated with proguanil
hydrochloride for 6 months at a dose of 12 mg/kg/day (approximately 3.9 times the
recommended daily human dose for malaria prophylaxis on a mg/m2 basis). Bile duct
hyperplasia, gall bladder mucosal atrophy, and interstitial pneumonia were observed in dogs
treated with proguanil hydrochloride for 6 months at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day (approximately
1.3 times the recommended daily human dose for malaria prophylaxis on a mg/m2 basis).
Mucosal hyperplasia of the cecum and renal tubular basophilia were observed in rats treated with
proguanil hydrochloride for 6 months at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day (approximately 1.6 times the
recommended daily human dose for malaria prophylaxis on a mg/m2 basis). Adverse heart, lung,
liver, and gall bladder effects observed in dogs and kidney effects observed in rats were not
shown to be reversible.
Treatment of Acute Malarial Infections:
In 3 phase II clinical trials, atovaquone alone,
proguanil hydrochloride alone, and the combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride
were evaluated for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated malaria caused by P. falciparum
Among 156 evaluable patients, the parasitological cure rate was 59/89 (66%) with atovaquone
alone, 1/17 (6%) with proguanil hydrochloride alone, and 50/50 (100%) with the combination of
atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride.
MALARONE was evaluated for treatment of acute, uncomplicated malaria caused by P. falciparum
in 8 phase III controlled clinical trials. Among 471 evaluable patients treated with
the equivalent of 4 MALARONE Tablets once daily for 3 days, 464 had a sensitive response
(elimination of parasitemia with no recurrent parasitemia during follow-up for 28 days) (see
Table 7). Seven patients had a response of RI resistance (elimination of parasitemia but with
recurrent parasitemia between 7 and 28 days after starting treatment). In these trials, the response
to treatment with MALARONE was similar to treatment with the comparator drug in 4 trials, and
better than the response to treatment with the comparator drug in the other 4 trials.
The overall efficacy in 521 evaluable patients was 98.7% (Table 7). Table 7. Parasitological Response in Clinical Trials of MALARONE for Treatment of
P. falciparum Malaria
* MALARONE = 1,000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride (or equivalent
based on body weight for patients weighing ≤40 kg) once daily for 3 days.
Elimination of parasitemia with no recurrent parasitemia during follow-up for 28 days.
Patients hospitalized only for acute care. Follow-up conducted in outpatients.
§ Study in pediatric patients 3 to 12 years of age.
Eighteen of 521 (3.5%) evaluable patients with acute falciparum
malaria presented with a
pretreatment serum creatinine greater than 2.0 mg/dL (range 2.1 to 4.3 mg/dL). All were
successfully treated with MALARONE and 17 of 18 (94.4%) had normal serum creatinine levels
by day 7.
Data from a phase II trial of atovaquone conducted in Zambia suggested that approximately
40% of the study population in this country were HIV-infected patients. The enrollment criteria
were similar for the phase III trial of MALARONE conducted in Zambia and the results are
presented in Table 7. Efficacy rates for MALARONE in this study population were high and
comparable to other populations studied.
The efficacy of MALARONE in the treatment of the erythrocytic phase of nonfalciparum
malaria was assessed in a small number of patients. Of the 23 patients in Thailand infected with P. vivax
and treated with atovaquone/proguanil hydrochloride 1,000 mg/400 mg daily for 3 days,
parasitemia cleared in 21 (91.3%) at 7 days. Parasite relapse occurred commonly when P. vivax
malaria was treated with MALARONE alone. Seven patients in Gabon with malaria due to P. ovale
or P. malariae
were treated with atovaquone/proguanil hydrochloride 1,000 mg/400 mg
daily for 3 days. All 6 evaluable patients (3 with P. malariae
, 2 with P. ovale
, and 1 with mixed P. falciparum
and P. ovale
) were cured at 28 days. Relapsing malarias including P. vivax
and P. ovale
require additional treatment to prevent relapse.
The efficacy of MALARONE in treating acute uncomplicated P. falciparum
children weighing ≥5 and <11 kg was examined in an open-label, randomized trial conducted in
Gabon. Patients received either MALARONE (2 or 3 MALARONE Pediatric Tablets once daily
depending upon body weight) for 3 days (n = 100) or amodiaquine (10 mg/kg/day) for 3 days
(n = 100). In this study, the MALARONE Tablets were crushed and mixed with condensed milk
just prior to administration. In the per-protocol population, adequate clinical response was
obtained in 95% (87/92) of the pediatric patients who received MALARONE and in 53% (41/78)
of those who received amodiaquine. A response of RI resistance (elimination of parasitemia but
with recurrent parasitemia between 7 and 28 days after starting treatment) was noted in 3% and
40% of the patients, respectively. Two cases of RIII resistance (rising parasite count despite
therapy) were reported in the patients receiving MALARONE. There were 4 cases of RIII in the
amodiaquine arm. Prevention of Malaria:
MALARONE was evaluated for prophylaxis of malaria in 5 clinical
trials in malaria-endemic areas and in 3 active-controlled trials in non-immune travelers to
Three placebo-controlled studies of 10 to 12 weeks’ duration were conducted among residents
of malaria-endemic areas in Kenya, Zambia, and Gabon. Of a total of 669 randomized patients
(including 264 pediatric patients 5 to 16 years of age), 103 were withdrawn for reasons other
than falciparum malaria or drug-related adverse events. (Fifty-five percent of these were lost to
follow-up and 45% were withdrawn for protocol violations.) The results are listed in Table 8.
Table 8. Prevention of Parasitemia in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials of MALARONE
for Prophylaxis of P. falciparum Malaria in Residents of Malaria-Endemic Areas
Developed parasitemia (P. falciparum
In another study, 330 Gabonese pediatric patients (weighing 13 to 40 kg, and aged 4 to
14 years) who had received successful open-label radical cure treatment with artesunate, were
randomized to receive either MALARONE (dosage based on body weight) or placebo in a
double-blind fashion for 12 weeks. Blood smears were obtained weekly and any time malaria
was suspected. Nineteen of the 165 children given MALARONE and 18 of 165 patients given
placebo withdrew from the study for reasons other than parasitemia (primary reason was lost to
follow-up). In the per-protocol population, 1 out of 150 patients (<1%) who received
MALARONE developed P. falciparum
parasitemia while receiving prophylaxis with
MALARONE compared with 31 (22%) of the 144 placebo recipients.
In a 10-week study in 175 South African subjects who moved into malaria-endemic areas and
were given prophylaxis with 1 MALARONE Tablet daily, parasitemia developed in 1 subject
who missed several doses of medication. Since no placebo control was included, the incidence of
malaria in this study was not known.
Two active-controlled studies were conducted in non-immune travelers who visited a
malaria-endemic area. The mean duration of travel was 18 days (range 2 to 38 days). Of a total
of 1,998 randomized patients who received MALARONE or controlled drug, 24 discontinued
from the study before follow-up evaluation 60 days after leaving the endemic area. Nine of these
were lost to follow-up, 2 withdrew because of an adverse experience, and 13 were discontinued
for other reasons. These studies were not large enough to allow for statements of comparative
efficacy. In addition, the true exposure rate to P. falciparum
malaria in both studies is unknown.
The results are listed in Table 9. Table 9. Prevention of Parasitemia in Active-Controlled Clinical Trials of MALARONE for
Prophylaxis of P. falciparum Malaria in Non-Immune Travelers
Developed parasitemia (P. falciparum
) 0 0
A third randomized, open-label study was conducted which included 221 otherwise healthy pediatric patients (weighing ≥11 kg and 2 to 17 years of age) who were at risk of contracting
malaria by traveling to an endemic area. The mean duration of travel was 15 days (range 1 to
30 days). Prophylaxis with MALARONE (n = 110, dosage based on body weight) began 1 or
2 days before entering the endemic area and lasted until 7 days after leaving the area. A control
group (n = 111) received prophylaxis with chloroquine/proguanil dosed according to WHO
guidelines. No cases of malaria occurred in either group of children. However, the study was not
large enough to allow for statements of comparative efficacy. In addition, the true exposure rate
to P. falciparum
malaria in this study is unknown.
In a malaria challenge study conducted in healthy US volunteers, atovaquone alone prevented
malaria in 6 of 6 individuals, whereas 4 of 4 placebo-treated volunteers developed malaria. Causal Prophylaxis:
In separate studies with small numbers of volunteers, atovaquone and
proguanil hydrochloride were independently shown to have causal prophylactic activity directed
against liver-stage parasites of P. falciparum
. Six patients given a single dose of atovaquone
250 mg 24 hours prior to malaria challenge were protected from developing malaria, whereas all
4 placebo-treated patients developed malaria.
During the 4 weeks following cessation of prophylaxis in clinical trial participants who
remained in malaria-endemic areas and were available for evaluation, malaria developed in 24 of
211 (11.4%) subjects who took placebo and 9 of 328 (2.7%) who took MALARONE. While new
infections could not be distinguished from recrudescent infections, all but 1 of the infections in
patients treated with MALARONE occurred more than 15 days after stopping therapy, probably
representing new infections. The single case occurring on day 8 following cessation of therapy
with MALARONE probably represents a failure of prophylaxis with MALARONE.
The possibility that delayed cases of P. falciparum
malaria may occur some time after
stopping prophylaxis with MALARONE cannot be ruled out. Hence, returning travelers
developing febrile illnesses should be investigated for malaria.
GlaxoSmithKline Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 2009, GlaxoSmithKline. All rights reserved. September 2009
Curriculum Vitae Li-Hua Ma Address Department of Environmental Toxicology University of California, Davis 4330 Meyers Hall One Shields Avenue Davis, CA 95616 Tel: (530)-752-4380 Email: email@example.com Education Ph.D. in Analytical Chemistry, Xiamen University, 2002 M.S. in Applied Chemistry, Shanxi University, 1999 B.S. in Physical Chemistry, Shanxi University, 1996 Resea
FAIRTRADE LABELLING ORGANIZATIONS INTERNATIONAL Critérios de Comércio Justo SUCOS DE FRUTAS Organizações de Pequenos Produtores Versão Atual: 02.12.2008 Substitui as versões anteriores de: 22.01.2008 Período para enviar comentários e perguntas relacionadas a esta nova versão: Não se aplica neste caso Envie seus comentários e perguntas para: s