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The role of hyperventilation - hypocapnia in the O papel da hiperventilação - a hipocapnia no Andras Sikter,1 Ede Frecska,2 Ivan Mario Braun,3 A b s t r a c tObjective: The authors present a profile of panic disorder based on and generalized from the effects of acute and chronichyperventilation that are characteristic of the respiratory panic disorder subtype. The review presented attempts to integrate threepremises: hyperventilation is a physiological response to hypercapnia; hyperventilation can induce panic attacks; chronichyperventilation is a protective mechanism against panic attacks. Method: A selective review of the literature was made using theMedline database. Reports of the interrelationships among panic disorder, hyperventilation, acidosis, and alkalosis, as well ascatecholamine release and sensitivity, were selected. The findings were structured into an integrated model. Discussion: Thepanic attacks experienced by individuals with panic disorder develop on the basis of metabolic acidosis, which is a compensatoryresponse to chronic hyperventilation. The attacks are triggered by a sudden increase in (pCO ) when the latent (metabolic) acidosis manifests as hypercapnic acidosis. The acidotic condition induces catecholamine release. Sympathicotonia cannot ariseduring the hypercapnic phase, since low pH decreases catecholamine sensitivity. Catecholamines can provoke panic whenhyperventilation causes the hypercapnia to switch to hypocapnic alkalosis (overcompensation) and catecholamine sensitivitybegins to increase. Conclusion: Therapeutic approaches should address long-term regulation of the respiratory pattern andelimination of metabolic acidosis.
Descriptors: Acidosis; Catecholamines; Hyperventilation; Hypocapnia; Panic disorder R e s u m oObjetivo: Os autores apresentam um modelo de transtorno do pânico que se baseia nos efeitos da hiperventilação aguda ecrônica, característicos do subtipo respiratório de transtorno do pânico. O modelo é generalizado a partir desses efeitos. Eleintegra três características da hiperventilação: a hiperventilação é uma resposta fisiológica à hipercapnia; a hiperventilação podeinduzir ataques de pânico; a hiperventilação crônica representa um mecanismo protetor contra os ataques de pânico. Método:Revisão seletiva da literatura a partir da base de dados Medline. Foram selecionados relatos referentes à inter-relação entretranstorno do pânico, hiperventilação, acidose, alcalose, liberação de catecolaminas e sensibilidade a catecolaminas, sendo osachados estruturados de modo a formar um modelo integrado. Discussão: Os ataques de pânico do transtorno do pânicodesenvolvem-se com base numa acidose metabólica, que é uma resposta compensatória à hiperventilação crônica. Os ataquessão desencadeados por um súbito aumento da pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono (pCO ), quando a acidose (metabólica) latente se manifesta pela acidose hipercápnica. A condição acidótica induz liberação de catecolaminas. A simpaticotonia nãopode manifestar-se durante a fase de hipercapnia, pois o baixo pH diminui a sensibilidade às catecolaminas. As catecolaminaspodem provocar pânico quando a hipercapnia comuta para uma alcalose hipocápnica devido à supercompensação pelahiperventilação, situação na qual a sensibilidade às catecolaminas liberadas começa a aumentar. Conclusão: As abordagensterapêuticas deveriam voltar-se para a regulação em longo prazo do padrão respiratório e a eliminação da acidose metabólica.
Descritores: Acidose; Catecolaminas; Hiperventilação; Hipocapnia; Transtorno de pânico St. Rokus Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Budapest, Hungary National Institute for Psychiatry and Neurology, Budapest, Hungary Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade de São Paulo (USP) School of Medicine, São Paulo (SP), Brazil CorrespondenceZoltan RihmerHûvösvölgyi út 116, 1021 Conflict of interests: NoneSubmitted: May 17, 2006 investigating the catecholamine sensitivity of brain and other Although the correlation between the respiratory panic tissues in relation to pH. We also included 10 articles on disorder (PD) subtype and hyperventilation is well established psychiatric topics presenting borderline relationships with PD.
in the literature, the active role of hyperventilation in the The search of the literature and the article selection were pathomechanism of PD is less understood. Although Wilhelm carried out by András Sikter, who has been researching this et al. provided a thorough review of the three main theories topic for decades and therefore has profound insight into the on the role of hyperventilation in PD,1 they identified issue. The author notes on the articles evaluated have been contradictions among them and did not offer a synthesis of arranged into a logical order so that they can be integrated t h e c u r r e n t c o n c e p t s . T h e i n c r e a s e o f t i s s u e H+ i o n concentration, which is regulated promptly and effectively byrespiration-induced changes in pCO , is a strong stimulus of catecholamine release. However, acidotic conditions decrease Maintaining the homeostasis of intracellular and extracellular the catecholamine sensitivity of target organs (the inverse of pH is a crucial regulatory task for the organism. A couple of deep what occurs in alkalosis). In a panic attack, these events occur breaths can substantially decrease CO concentration, increasing in rapid succession. Therefore, understanding the timing and extracellular pH to 7.4-7.7. Since CO readily passes through the time constant (how quickly a change develops) of cell membranes, intracellular pCO decreases to the same physiological variables is crucial for resolving the apparent degree. Therefore, altering respiration can produce marked contradictions and establishing a coherent model.
changes in intracellular pH, the consequences of which are The role of hypocapnia in the pathomechanism of PD has outlined below.7 Acute hypocapnia has a progressive effect on been largely overlooked in the literature.2 During the late membrane permeability, metabolism, oxygen consumption, and 1930s, hyperventilation played a central role in the diagnostic cardiac function,8 as well as exciting the nervous system formulation of hyperventilation syndrome.3-4 Shortly after the through the hypopolarization of neurons.9-10 In contrast, conceptualization of PD in the DSM III (1980), it became hypercapnia results in decreased cell membrane permeability,11 evident that there had been an overlap between symptoms of metabolic depression,12 reduced muscle contractility13, and hyperventilation syndrome and PD.5 The article written by Klein hyperpolarization of neurons. In short, acute hypocapnia elicits in 1993 represented an important step toward settling the effects similar to those seen when the sympathetic nervous long-standing debate on the role of hyperventilation.6 Klein system is stimulated, whereas acute hypercapnia evokes denied the importance of acute or chronic hyperventilation in parasympathetic effects. The latter occurs despite the fact that the generation of panic attacks. Although he described a h y p e r c a p n i a c a u s e s i n c r e a s e s i n t h e l e v e l s o f s e r u m positive correlation between chronic hyperventilation and panic adrenaline and noradrenaline.14 There are conflicting data attacks, he used this observation in order to put forth the idea i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g s e r u m a d r e n a l i n e a n d that chronic hyperventilation is protective against panic.
noradrenaline levels in acute hypocapnia, some authors The aim of this study was to review the literature on PD, r e p o r t i n g n o a l t e r a t i o n s 14 a n d o t h e r s d e m o n s t r a t i n g with a special focus on the role of hyperventilation and significant decreases.15 Hypoxia is a disturbing variable in hypocapnia in the pathomechanism of PD. Special attention most investigations.16 Catecholamine sensitivity decreases was paid to studies investigating the interrelationships between i n h y p e r c a p n i c a c i d o s i s a n d i n c r e a s e s i n h y p o c a p n i c panic, pH, pCO , tissue catecholamine sensitivity, and alkalosis.7 These changes in catecholamine level and c a t e c h o l a m i n e e l i m i n a t i o n , a s w e l l a s t h e i r t e m p o r a l sensitivity affect target organs. Lower intracellular pH is t h e t r i g g e r f o r n o r a d r e n a l i n e r e l e a s e f r o m t h e l o c u scoeruleus during panic attacks.17-18 Chronic hypocapnia elicits a cascade of changes due to We conducted a selective review of the literature in the compensatory mechanisms for the restoration of intracellular Medline database, limiting our searches to articles published and extracellular physiological pH. Renal reabsorption of between 1937 and 2006. Our approach was to discuss the chlorine ions and excretion of bicarbonate is increased in available literature on PD in order to show that it is not only a s u s t a i n e d h y p o c a p n i a . 19 I n a n e x p e r i m e n t a l m o d e l o f psychiatric disorder but also a regulatory disorder. Our first hyperventilation in dogs, it was shown to take five days for the search included the terms “panic” and “hyperventilation”, and/ kidneys to reestablish the equilibrium.20 In humans, the role or “hypocapnia” and/or “hypercapnia”. This search strategy of intracellular buffer mechanisms is more important, and yielded a total of 317 articles, from which we selected 33 for adaptation to chronic hyperventilation or hypoventilation is analysis. In selecting these articles, our principal aim was to therefore less dependent on renal function.21 The process of represent all major opinions and trends. Within this context, adaptation is similarly slow: to regain equilibrium can take we selected articles written by the most prominent authors.
five to seven days.7 It takes equally as long to reverse the Therefore, these articles and their main arguments present a changes after the occurrence of eucapnia. Buffer mechanisms logical progression. In addition, we reviewed the most include the release of hydrogen ions, which shifts pH toward controversial papers. Furthermore, 17 of the articles included the physiological level, although this process also occurs only deal with the physiology and pathology of catecholamine homeostasis in relation to panic. These articles were identified Various authors have downplayed the role of hyperventilation by adding the search terms “acid-base disorder”, “acidosis”, in PD and have recommended that the term ‘hyperventilation “alkalosis”, “hypocapnia”, “hypercapnia”, “catecholamine”, syndrome’ no longer be used.21-24 However, in another review “noradrenaline”, “adrenaline”, and “sympathetic nervous article, Gardner argues for the preservation of the term.25 Other system”. In this step of the selection process, we focused on authors have stated that chronic hyperventilation is a common articles investigating the relationship between acidosis/alkalosis cause of both hyperventilation syndrome and PD.5,25-26 Recently, a n d c a t e c h o l a m i n e p r o d u c t i o n , a s w e l l a s o n t h o s e Nardi addressed the role of hyperventilation in PD and tried to clarify it, stating that it is considered to be “.a cause, a correlate, of PD, and that similar irregularity can be found in or a consequence of panic attacks.” According to Nardi, acute generalized anxiety disorder.40 The similarity can explain hyperventilation might play a role in the pathomechanism of the the high comorbidity of these two conditions.26 In individuals with generalized anxiety disorder, the irregularity of breathing In a study using transcutaneous monitoring, no relationship is less pronounced than in those with PD.41 Various studies was found between PD and hyperventilation.28 This method is have shown that, in individuals with PD, there is a strong outdated due to its high inertia (slow decay) in monitoring changes correlation between the degree of respiratory irregularity in arterial pCO .2 It is widely accepted that the respiratory PD and the frequency of panic attacks, as well as between subtype, which accounts for approximately 50% of all PD cases, such irregularity and CO vulnerability.1,41-42 Irregular i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o h y p e r v e n t i l a t i o n a n d r e p r e s e n t s a respiration occasionally causes elevated pCO , which can hyperventilation syndrome comorbidity.2,5,25-26 There are three views in the literature regarding the role that The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis model of hyperventilation plays in the pathomechanism of PD. In the first, hypercapnia induced panic is generally accepted in the panic is triggered by elevated CO levels, and hyperventilation literature,17,43 although it was recently questioned by follows as a physiological response.1,29 In this model, the Gorman,44 who discovered inconsistencies and pointed out hyperventilation is a consequence, an epiphenomenon observed that, during CO challenge, actual pCO values correlate during naturally-occurring and drug-induced panic attacks. In negatively with signs and symptoms of panic. This indicates the view of other authors30-31 – a view shared by followers of the that panic develops not during hypercapnia but during the cognitive-behavioral theory of PD1 – hyperventilation-induced subsequent hypocapnic phase. The way Gorman puts it: hypocapnia plays a central role. The opinion of psychotherapists “.in panic disorder patients, we have found that elevated can be summarized as follows: individuals with PD can cortisol, fear and hypocapnia are intercorrelated in the few misinterpret the bodily sensations caused by hyperventilation as minutes before actually experiencing an acute attack.” being indicative of life-threatening danger.32 As previously mentioned, higher pCO leads to increased However, the most widely accepted view is that detailed by noradrenaline release.18 However, in human plasma, Klein6: hyperventilation is a protective mechanism against panic noradrenaline has a half-life of only a few minutes.45-46 In reactions. In his thorough study, Klein demonstrated that patients the rebound phase of hypocapnia, cells present increased with PD are hypersensitive to increases in pCO , and that panic s e n s i t i v i t y t o r e s i d u a l c a t e c h o l a m i n e s .7 S t r o n g attacks are triggered by a relative increase in the level of CO .
catecholamine stimuli are known to induce panic attacks.47 Such individuals present chronic hyperventilation as a means of Individuals with PD present normal catecholamine levels avoiding the panic-inducing increase in CO levels.
between panic attacks.48 It is therefore possible that, in We agree with Klein that chronic hyperventilation has some a d d i t i o n t o t h e h y p e r c a p n i a - r e l a t e d i n c r e a s e i n defensive effects against panic attacks in individuals with PD, c a t e c h o l a m i n e l e v e l s , t h e h y p o c a p n i a - i n d u c e d since a sudden increase of pCO (e.g. CO challenge) has been catecholamine sensitivity plays a significant role in the s h o w n t o p r o v o k e s u c h a t t a c k s . 33 H o w e v e r, c h r o n i c hyperventilation is always accompanied by compensatory metabolic Borelli et al. conducted electrophysiological studies in acidosis. In an individual with chronic hyperventilation, life events animals50 and concluded that panic attacks represent a (i.e., relaxation, sleep, premenstrual phase, etc.) can cause pCO pathological manifestation of ‘freezing behavior’ (low-arousal to rise to the normal baseline or above.6 The latent metabolic condition), rather than the high-arousal condition of the acidosis then appears, and the elevated concentration of H+ ‘fight-or-flight’ response.51 ‘Freezing behavior ’ initially increases CO sensitivity of the respirator y center. It can be manifests as immobility, bradycardia, and hypoventilation assumed that the chronic hyperventilation itself is responsible for but can transform into the flight response, which is the increased CO sensitivity observed in individuals with PD.
characterized by vigorous locomotion, tachycardia, and The best supporting evidence is provided by Klein himself, who hyperventilation.52 The sudden change in the respiratory found chronic hyperventilation to correlate positively with lactate- pattern that precedes the flight response indicates the induced panic and CO sensitivity.6 Hypophosphatemia, which is similarity with panic attacks. It is quite probable that the an indicator of chronic hyperventilation, has been found to be role the brainstem plays in the pathomechanism of PD is predictive of lactate-induced panic attacks.34 Decreased plasma more important than previously suggested.
bicarbonate is also a marker of chronic hyperventilation and We can build a profile of PD that integrates the three sensitizes to the onset of panic attacks.35 However, chronic hyperventilation theories. Individuals with the respiratory hypercapnia accompanied by metabolic alkalosis has been shown PD subtype present chronic hyperventilation. The chronic to correlate negatively with the development of panic attacks.6 hyperventilation results in a compensatory decrease in V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e b e e n s u c c e s s f u l i n u s i n g intracellular and extracellular pH due to renal secretion of hyperventilation to provoke panic attacks.27,36-39 Nardi addressed bicarbonate and due to the tissue buffer mechanisms. A the role of hypocapnia and hypercapnia in PD with equal focus balanced steady-state is established between the hypocapnic and equal importance in the pathogenesis.27,38-39 However, the alkalosis and the metabolic acidosis. Multiple factors can overall effect of hyperventilation on panic was significantly less lead to a sudden increase in CO levels. In individuals with than that of CO inhalation. Respiratory challenge tests (CO and PD and presenting sustained hypoventilation episodes, breath-holding) can provoke panic attacks in individuals presenting irregular breathing causes abrupt changes in pCO . In the t h e r e s p i r a t o r y P D s u b t y p e . 39 C e r e b r a l h y p o x i a , c h r o n i c prelude to a panic attack, an abrupt increase of pCO occurs, hyperventilation, and anxiety persist in the interim between panic w h i c h l e a d s t o u n u s u a l l y h i g h i n t r a c e l l u l a r H + attacks.26 Although individuals with PD are prone to continue c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , t h e r e b y t r i g g e r i n g t h e r e l e a s e o f hyperventiling,1,32 the hyperventilation facilitates panic attacks.
noradrenaline in the locus coeruleus. This sudden increase Caldirola stated that an irregular breathing pattern is predictive in intracellular acidosis elicits hypocapnia by compensatory h y p e r v e n t i l a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h P D the corresponding metabolic acidosis, is a predisposing factor overcompensate for hypercapnia.53 The consequence is severe for PD. Therefore, therapeutic approaches should address long- sympathicotonia, since the higher catecholamine level resulting term regulation of respiratory patterns60 and elimination of from the previous hypercapnia overlaps with the increased catecholamine sensitivity caused by the hypocapnic alkalosis.
The adrenergic/noradrenergic tonus results in fear mediatedby the limbic system, and the expectation of threat can createa vicious circle. Long after the chemical component phase ofa panic attack is over, the cortical excitation persists, leavingthe individual with a lingering, subjective feeling of anxiety.
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Source: http://www.pacidoki.hu/pdf/REVISTA_PANIC_ARTICLE_2007_published.pdf

Broadcast application.cdr

BROADCAST SPREADER APPLICATION CHART Control Lever USING YOUR SPREADER: Settings are made by pressing down on the Calibration Indicator button and setting to the desired number on the Control Cable Calibration Indicator TO OPEN SLIDE PLATE: Push the Control Lever forward until it stops against the button. TO CLOSE SLIDE PLATE: Pull the Control Lever fully back toward MAI

Epipen epidemic: suggestions for rational prescribing in childhood food allergy

J. Paediatr. Child Health (2003) 39 , 372–375 EpiPen epidemic: Suggestions for rational prescribing in childhood food allergy Department of Allergy, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia Abstract: There has been a marked increase in community concerns of the risk of food induced anaphylaxis in children

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