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Mucuna news

Mucuna News
Developing Multiple Uses for a Proven Green Manure/Cover Crop
Update on the Progress of the Project
“Increasing Mucuna’s Potential as a Food and Feed Crop”
Fifth issue, February 2002
aiming at September 2002. We will let all thosewho receive Mucuna News know by email as Only a few months remain before the Project While Mucuna News no. 4 focused on the mid- concludes. Most of the data collection has term reports of the project investigators, this already been finalized. Many things remain to be edition of Mucuna News reports on a wide variety done, however, from statistical analysis to the of research activities and experiences with writing of reports and finalizing of accounts, to Mucuna by researchers who are outside of the preparing for the upcoming workshop. Please formal project but who have become a part of our note the deadlines and other advice regarding wider community of practice. Interesting work on the end-of-the project activities in this newsletter. Mucuna as ruminant feed has recently beenconcluded in Yucatan, Mexico, and is at its earlyphases in Nairobi, Kenya. We also report on One of the project’s most important tasks promising results with Mucuna as a poultry feed remaining is to submit the technical report to the in Guinea. Moreover, in this and the next edition Rockefeller Foundation. The first part of this of Mucuna News, we will explore information on report will consist of an overview of the project, Mucuna’s medicinal/therapeutic properties.
Finally, this issue includes an inquiry from a investigator’s results, while the second part will Zambian project regarding the feasibility of a describe the experiences that the researchers and coordinators have had in working within theframework of the Project. The investigators’ We are grateful for the articles and contributions contracts specify a deadline of March 31 for submitted by L-O. Jansson, C. Sandoval, J.
submitting their research reports and financial Castillo-Caamal, E. Mbuthia, T. Berhe, K.
accounting. Please note, however, that this Janardhanan, and P. Oudhia, and, as always, to deadline has been extended to April 30, 2002.
the MOIST-CIIFAD of Cornell University for Please see page 2 for specific directions. This final stretch of the current Mucuna Project also brings some disappointing news: CIEPCA, Sponsors: The Rockefeller Foundation and the which has been working with networking and International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) information exchange on green manure/cover Editor: Marjatta Eilittä ( crops from its base at IITA since 1997, iscurrently without funding prospects. CIEPCA and CIEPCA is a project of the International Institute ofTropical Agriculture (IITA) IITA are at the moment trying to find alternative Address: IITA Benin Research Station,BP 08-0932, Cotonou, Benin In Mucuna News no. 4 we reported on the plans for a workshop to conclude the current project.
Due to the termination of CIEPCA, these plans This bulletin is available through the have been in flux. We still intend to hold the ( workshop, most likely in Africa, but are now If you are interested in posting news or inquiriesn this bulletin, please contact Marjatta Eilittä. collaborating researcher, we would be veryinterested in receiving copies of such exchanges with, of course, the permission of all those thatparticipated in them. In addition to the financial accounting, we will besubmitting a technical report, which will have two If you would like to collaborate more closely in parts. Part One will be an overview of the main writing the final report, please contact M. Eilittä.
results of the project, to which are appendedsummaries highlighting each researcher’s major Investigators are also expected to submit findings. Part Two will describe the experiences financial accounting at the same as their final of this project from a methodological viewpoint. reports. For details, please refer to theagreement form that was sent to you at the For Part One, each investigator’s final report is needed. As mentioned above, the deadline forthe reports is April 30, 2002. Please note that – unless you indicate otherwise (i.e., you are notplanning on participating in the workshop) – we Mucuna is being harvested in all Genotype-by- would like to consider this report as the first draft Environment trial locations except in Columbia of your workshop paper. If accepted for this and Zimbabwe, which have been planted in the purpose by the editors, the paper would undergo past two months. The L-dopa analysis of the technical editing and comments would be sent to 2000-2001 samples is ongoing at the Judson the author prior to the workshop. If not, it would College. The USDA permits have been sent to be sent back to the authors for further revisions this year’s collaborators, who will be mailing in prior to editing. The report is to follow standard their samples in February and March 2002; they scientific presentation with the following sections: will be analyzed immediately thereafter. Due to Abstract, Introduction/Justification, Materials and bad luck, two trials sites were lost in last year’s trial: At Auburn, Alabama, a fire destroyed a Recommendations for Future Research.
collected by L. Capo-chichi. In California, an including tables, figures, and references. More early winter storm and frost devastated the detailed instructions will be given after the Mucuna plants. The analysis of all samples but finalized by the end April, and will be included in We also solicit your input for the second, the final report submitted to the Rockefeller methodological section. In it, we would like to describe experiences that the project participantsand coordinators have had with this type of project. As you know, the project originated froma workshop which identified important research Mucuna News no. 4 did not contain an update on issues. While each investigator mainly worked all projects. One of them was the project by M.
alone during the project, a certain degree of Egounlety from Universite d'Abomey-Calavi, coordination, facilitation, and information Benin, who had just initiated his project at the exchange have been provided by the project time of its publication. In January 2002 M.
coordinators. In addition, the workshop resulted Egounlety contributed the following update: in personal contacts that have perhaps enabledresearchers more easily to seek advice and After several trials, the following processing feedback from each other. In many ways, the method was developed: Mucuna grains are Mucuna Project has functioned like a network of washed, boiled for 45 min, drained, dehulled by investigators working on a common research hand, washed, soaked twice for 12 hr, drained, theme. We would therefore like to solicit your input regarding the effectiveness of this type ofresearch project in fostering information The pH of soaked beans was 5.56 after the first exchange, advice seeking, and other activities soaking and 4.46 after the second soaking.
that may result in better and more appropriate These conditions were favourable for the growth research. To that end, we will be utilizing a brief of fungal and lactic acid bacteria that are involved survey form that will be sent to the project in fermentation. Good Mucuna tempe (mold- participants and others who have collaborated fermented Mucuna) and Mucuna ogi (a traditional with the project. In this section, we would also food preparation) with 50% Mucuna and 50% like to account different types of exchanges of maize were obtained from the first experiments. information that may have taken place among theresearchers. If you have had such information exchange with a researcher in the project or a uncooked and not dehulled after 45 min cooking time. A dark water was obtained after the first 12 size should be large. A prolonged soaking of hr of soaking of the cooked dehulled Mucuna.
whole seeds in running water is also good but ittakes a longer period of time. The two ingredientswith a high moisture content should be fermented at the same, rather than using the various stepsas suggested. The protein quality of the resulting Response from M. Egounlety (Universited'Abomey-Calavi, Benin): We recently received the inquiry below regardingpotential Mucuna processing methods for One of the techniques that may be interesting is Zambia. The inquiry was forwarded to some the co-fermentation technique (simultaneous collaborators of the project whose responses are fermentation of maize and Mucuna). As in summarized after it. Please contact L-O.
Jansson ( to comment on household traditional technique in Benin and Nigeria. Here, maize is soaked for 2-3 days, collaborators suggesting different approaches.
milled, wet-sieved and fermented for 1-2 days.
We at the Mucuna News would be interested in The slurry (or deposit) known as ogi is cooked any such exchange, so please send a copy of into a porridge for weaning and breakfast foods or into a stiff gel for lunch and dinner. Ogi can bekept for up to 14 days by replacing the water (LM&CF) is a Zambian land husbandry programsponsored by Sweden at the Ministry of In the maize- Mucuna fermentation process Agriculture which, among others, is promoting developed by us, Mucuna is boiled for 45 min., Mucuna as a green manure. Mucuna performs drained, hand-dehulled, soaked twice for 12 hr, very well in Zambia and the project is trying to recooked for 45 min. and milled. The milled Mucuna and the soaked milled maize are mixed, wet-sieved and allowed to ferment up to 48hr.
The project is currently considering for rural Samples were taken at 12 hr intervals for L-dopa areas the processing method that follows below.
analysis and biochemical changes. The color of It is based on fermentation of maize and Mucuna.
the slurry is improved (becoming whiter) during Fermentation of maize is an old, traditional food technique in Zambia, typically done after partlycrushing the maize through pounding, soaking/ The effectiveness of this technique on L-dopa fermentation (24 hours), sun drying, and milling (in a hammer mill or pounded in a mortar). The crucial question is how much of the maize-Mucuna product can be eaten and for how long? Regarding soaking: Soaking ground Mucuna isgoing to reduce the L-dopa content greatly. The rate of extraction depends on the Mucuna:water 1. Coarsely grind/pound the Mucuna beans down ratio and the fineness of the particles. to a particle size of 1mm. Traditionally this is You propose grinding to a particle size 1mm - done by moistening the beans to soften the outer based on the results of several investigators shell, shelling it in a mortar, and grinding. (including those that A. Teixeira has obtained 2. Soak in water for 24 h. Drain water and rinse during this current project), it is clear that with your method you can reduce a very large part of 3. Mix the soaked Mucuna (50%?) and pounded the L-dopa, especially if your water:Mucuna ratio maize (50%?) and soak the mixture in water for is high. Stirring of the mixture further increases L- 24 hours or more (?) for the fermentation process dopa extraction. What we do not know is the impact of the soaking of such small particles (for the amino acid balance of the beans butseveral of the research projects are looking into Response from R. Bressani (Universidad del I believe he can have a good quality product with mixtures of 70 parts maize and 30 parts Mucuna, both fermented. The elimination of L-dopa from Mucuna. The big question is whether those ground Mucuna is good, however the particle nutrients were reduced greatly in the first stage. Regarding safety of Mucuna: These are the vitro dry matter (IVDMD) and organic matter "million-dollar questions." I personally tend to (IVOMD) digestibility of beans were high at assume the cautious line and think that given the 97.94 ± 0.35 and 96.02 ± 1.31%. The IVDMD and various contraindications of L-dopa on diseases/ IVOMD of husks were lower, 78.96 ± 1.69 and conditions that are common (cf. paper by N.
78.85 ± 1.75% respectively. Energy value for ruminants (MJ kg DM-1) was estimated from the proceedings), we need to strive for extremely low digestible organic matter contained in the dry L-dopa. I think our best guideline right now is the matter and was 13.90 and 11.14 for beans and content of L-dopa in processed fava bean, as we husks, respectively, showing the high potential of know that large populations have been eating it both Mucuna fractions. The gas production for hundreds and thousands of years. That profiles were described with the equation: ml content is very likely less than 0.1%. Note that gas*gDM-1 = a + b (1-e-ct) (where a=intercept, within the Project, a mutagenic characterization b=potential gas production and c=rate of gas of Mucuna and a quantification of some of the production), yielding the following parameters for alkaloids present in it will be conducted, shedding pods and beans respectively; a=-32.5±3.96 and - further light on Mucuna's impacts on human 37.11±4.084; b=264.6± 4.88 and 249.6±4.084 and c=(%*h-1) 3.053±0.1700 and 4.208±0.1909.
These profiles are similar to those of a good Research in Yucatan on Mucuna Beans starchy feed or a bean. The antinutritional factors did not show any detrimental effect on thein vitro fermentation. As in many other locations, quite a bit of work on Mucuna as a green manure/cover crop took The results indicate that Mucuna has potential to place in the Yucatan during the 1990s. And, as replace conventional energy sources (e.g., maize elsewhere, these experiences led to explorations and sorghum) in ruminant diets. In addition to the of Mucuna’s food and feed uses. Mucuna News beans, the husks can be incorporated into the No. 2 reported on a number of research projects diet without expecting major problems because of on Mucuna beans as a feed for monogastrics their high digestibility. Further studies will be (poultry and pigs) in the Yucatan. Additional, carried out by A. Ayala to clarify any effects L- recently concluded work has focused on Mucuna dopa might have during in vitro fermentation.
beans as a feed for ruminants, particularly forsheep, a common livestock in Yucatan. There For further information, please contact C.
have been two phases in the past work: In the first phase, the explorations focused on in vitro Other Recently Concluded Research Projects in processing to attempt to detect any toxic impacts that may occur and to determine whether thiseffect may be exacerbated in a closed rumen In addition to the work reported above, there are simulation system (in vitro gas production). The a number of other projects on Mucuna as a second phase took place in vivo and consisted of sheep feed which concluded in January 2002. If feeding sheep remarkably high Mucuna levels to you are interested in obtaining preliminary results or contacting any of the researchers, please physiological parameters. In the future, plans for in vitro work include using pure L-dopa instead of whole Mucuna, in order to ascertain that otherconstituents of Mucuna are not confounding the Following projects have been recently concluded: Feeding increasing levels of groundMucuna pods as a complete feed.
The summary immediately below outlines the Bachelor’s thesis research of A.M. Castillo.
results of the first phase of work, where no indicated that Mucuna has good potential as a • Mucuna feed as a substitute for soya, ruminant feed. Subsequently, the in vivo projects including a digestibility trial. Bachelor’s that were concluded in January 2002 are listed; thesis research of F. Pérez. Supervisor: A.
their results will be presented in later issues of Free intake of Mucuna, to attempt to In vitro gas production and digestibility of Mucuna identify possible problems with toxicity.
Researchers: several Bachelor’s students By C. Sandoval, P. Herrera, A. Ayala, and C.
and one Master’s level student, A. Ayala, J.
Capetillo, Univ. Autónoma de Yucatán, Mexico Beans and husks from Mucuna were evaluatedusing the in vitro gas production technique. In A Research Project on Mucuna Silage laboratory silos to study the fermentation pattern of the various combinations of Napier grass,legumes, and molasses. This will involve serial samplings over a 90-day period and analyses for smallholder mixed crop-livestock systems is low.
important silage parameters such as ammonia, lactic acid, volatile fatty acids, and soluble sugar.
Rumen simulation technique will be used with N15 introduced new legume species for soil fertility as the marker to measure the rumen microbial maintenance but it has become evident that for protein yield from silage diets containing wider adoption, these legumes need to have legumes. This, together with the gas production data, will show whether the improved proteinlevel of the Napier grass silage results in better Several research projects were started to nutrient utilization at the microbial level. The investigate and improve the feed and food palatability assessment of the Napier grass- utilization of these legumes. Two of the projects are part of the Mucuna Project: the project led by performance and nitrogen balance of the goats E. Wanjekeche on food processing techniques as well as the in vivo digestibility of the silage collaborators on Mucuna as a feed for dairycows. In addition, Mucuna News No. 3 reported So far, legume-enriched Napier grass silage has on the Ph.D. project of E.M. Nyambati at the been made and sampled . The samples collected University of Florida with field research have been processed and are awaiting laboratory conducted at the Kenya Agricultural Research analysis. The feeding trials will be conducted in Institute (KARI) in Kitale; his work also originated March 2002 and the rumen simulation tests will from these projects. E. Nyambati’s research focused on supplementing dairy cows withMucuna hay. Another, a more recent, effort is that by E. Mbuthia of University of Nairobi on evaluating the effect of including legumes onquality of legume-grass silage for feeding goats.
In the past three years, efforts have been The work was started in 2001 as a part his Ph.D.
underway in the Republic of Guinea to increase studies. This project is summarized below. For multiple uses of Mucuna by finding appropriate more information, please contact E. Mbuthia processing methods to reduce its L-dopa content.
These efforts partly originated from a project Effect of inclusion of high-protein forage legumes funded by Sasakawa-Global 2000 to promote and molasses in Napier grass silage on silage Mucuna for soil fertility maintenance and quality and performance of dual-purpose goats restoration. The following is an update of the By E.W. Mbuthia, Univ. of Nairobi, Kenya most recent and ongoing work. For moreinformation, please contact T. Berhe Due to its high biomass productivity and focused efforts of agricultural extension services, Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum) has become the Potential Use of Mucuna as Poultry and Animal main forage feed for dairy cattle in Kenya. In the rainy season, it grows rapidly but its quality By A. Camara (Ecole Nat. d’Agricult. et d’Elevage deteriorates as the dry season approaches. For de Tolo), K. Toupou, (Ecole Nat. d’Agricult. et dry season fodder, farmers either leave Napier grass standing as a reserve, purchase equally In early 1999, we heard about a research project of Mr. Benign Ruiz Sesma from Yucatan, Mexico, producers, or make use of crop residues or on soaking Mucuna in 4% solution of Ca(OH)2 for roadside pastures. The quality of Napier grass 24 hours as a way to drastically reduce L-dopa (85% of the original). This method was adopted incorporation of legumes; in addition, such in Guinea but the soaking was lengthened to 48 legumes may be conducive to higher microbial hours to ensure near complete removal of the toxic factor. Cracking the seeds before soaking The objective of this research is to study the also proved effective. These results were effect of supplementation of Napier grass with high-protein forage legumes and molasses onsilage characteristics, digestibility, and growth Subsequent animal studies with chickens and performance of dual-purpose goats. Legumes laying hens were conducted in March 2000 – studied will be Mucuna pruriens, Crotalaria October 2001 at two agricultural schools in ochroleuca, Leucaena leucocephala, and Lablab Guinea. Fishmeal and palmnut residue meal purpureus. The first part of the study will employ were substituted at 33% level by detoxified Mucuna. Basic feed was either normal maize or say, such information just satisfies general High Quality Protein Maize (QPM). Growth of In the following two articles, various aspects of Rations with Mucuna + QPM combinations medicinal uses are explored. First, P. Oudhia resulted in equal or better weight gain as rations describes the cultivation of Mucuna for medicinal uses in India. The second article describes some Mucuna+QPM fed hens laid more eggs and they of the medicinal uses found for Mucuna in an were heavier than hens fed on normal ration.
Internet search. The next number of Mucuna Mucuna +QPM ration also resulted in the least News will include a more in-depth look at the malformed or broken eggs (i.e., the eggs had medicinal uses of Mucuna in India. harder shells). Consequently, Mucuna + QPMresulted in more marketable eggs. Other Cultivation of Mucuna for Medicinal Uses in India observations noted about the chicks and hens By P. Oudhia, Indira Gandhi Agricultural which ate ratios containing Mucuna: 1) Their plumage was more colorful; 2) They picked each Mucuna has long been known and valued in other less; 3) They consumed less feed and Indian medicine. Although in many parts of the water; 4) They were more active, had shinier world, Mucuna is grown as green manure crop, feathers and looked healthier; and 4) Their Indian farmers are not aware of this. They are mortality rate was less; and 5) They were growing it because of its demand in national markets as a medicinal herb. Mucuna is anintegral part of over 30 of the popular drugs in Encouraged by the positive results of the first India, including Mustang, useful in male sexual experiments, studies are now underway in three impotence and Gertiforte, useful in “senile agricultural schools. In these experiments, fish meal is being substituted gradually by detoxifiedMucuna up to 100%. The trials include poultry Most of the farmers raise the Mucuna crop in (fryers) at three sites, pigs at two sites and sheep kharif season. They cultivate this twining legume at one site. So far, no serious problems have in the field boundaries with the support of barbed been observed even with 100% substitution of wire fence. The cultivation on the fence not only fishmeal by detoxified Mucuna except that the utilizes the land but also reduces the cost of mortality of chicks consuming Mucuna feeds has providing support to the growing crop. Many been slightly higher and, at high Mucuna ratios, farmers who have planted trees like teak and eucalyptus use them to support growing Mucuna.
substitution is showing satisfactory results. All Only a few farmers are cultivating it in open rations will be sent to the University of Arkansas, fields, where they use bamboo sticks to provide USA, for quality analysis. Results of the ongoing experiments will be available in about threemonths.
The use of chemical inputs are prohibited inherbal farming in ancient systems of medicine but Positive results from these studies would be unfortunately most of the Indian farmers are predicted to have two significant impacts. Firstly, using fertilizers and insecticides in order to poultry and animal feed could become much increase the production of this crop. Heavy cheaper. One kilogram of fishmeal costs about infestation of Aphis craccivora on Mucuna crops 1,200 Guinean Francs while a kilo of Mucuna seed sells for 300 Guinean Francs. Secondly,once Mucuna seed gains market value more I have conducted many field experiments at farmers would be encouraged to grow the crop, farmers’ field in different agro-climatic zones of thereby contributing to the improvement of fertility India. These experiments were conducted in Rajkot, Raipur, Kanker, Siliguri, Harpalpur,Baster and Sarguja districts. Some observations and results include:1. Use of a spray containing fresh cowdung, cow Interestingly, Mucuna has thousands of years of urine solution and neem leaves not only helped medicinal use in India, particularly for Parkinson’s with crop growth but also repelled insects from disease but also for other ailments. In this and the following edition of Mucuna News, we wil 2. Seed rate 50 kg ha-1 was found best as explore various aspects of the current and compared to seed rates of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, potential medical uses. While not directly related to Mucuna’s food and feed uses, Mucuna’s 3. Crop grown with support was found to be more various medicinal purposes can point to some of vigorous and free of pest as compared to crop the active compounds it contains. Needless to For weight management or energy lifter: For The area under Mucuna is continuously increasing in some parts of India. Both white and Mucuna together with Korean Ginseng and black varieties of Mucuna are under cultivation in For male vitality: An Internet site also sells a Pradesh states. In the Indian system of medicine, product including various extracts that have the black variety is considered more valuable as been used in Ayurvedic medicine to support compared to the white variety but as the black male vitality. One two-tablet supply included variety possesses allergenic hairs on its pod, 280mg Mucuna pruriens seed pod extract, farmers hesitate to cultivate it. The average standardized to 25% L-dopa (i.e., 70mg L- market prices of black and white varieties, respectively, are 50 and 40 Rs./kg (1 US$ = 47 Ashwagandha root extract (Withania Rs.). The purchasers buy the seed at very low somnifera), Shatavari Root Extract (Aspargus racemosus), and Country mallow Due to the lack of adequate processing method Root 10:1 Extract (Sida cordifolia). For increased muscle size and performance: international markets, Mucuna growers are facing A website sells a human growth hormone, “a a great number of problems. In the national market, most of the Mucuna seeds collected from different parts of India are sold to Indian Mucuna pruriens extract (20% L-dopa, i.e., pharmacies where there is very little quality 150 mg L-dopa), 250 mg Tribulus terrestris control. Cheating is also done, and is even extract (an Ayurvedic herb), and 2 mg Piper common, as some sellers burn the white variety For more information, please contact P. Oudhia(
Mucuna’s Medicinal Uses: Browsing the Internet This is the fourth in a series of listings published If you have browsed through the Internet in in Mucuna News of references on topics related search for information on Mucuna’s uses as a to Mucuna’s food and feed uses. The series has green manure/cover crop or as a food and feed, included the following topics: nutritional characterization of Mucuna beans (No. 2), L- websites where Mucuna’s medicinal uses are dopa and alkaloids in Mucuna (No. 3), and Mucuna’s feed potential (No. 4). At the including Mucuna are sold. For your information, conclusion of the project, we would like to the following is a partial listing of the purposes to develop these articles into a bibliography of texts which Mucuna is sold in the Internet sites - this that are relevant to Mucuna’s food and feed does not, of course, signify that we endorse such At the moment, we are planning on compiling the bibliography in Word, and either publishing it Disease: Mucuna’s high content of L-dopa is inexpensively as a hard copy and/or making it available through the Internet. If you are aware symptomatic relief of Parkinson’s Disease of any other documents that would be important and such use goes back thousands of years to include in the bibliography, please contact M.
within the Ayurvedic medical system of India.
A number of websites that give informationon Parkinson’s Disease mention Mucuna’s Part IV. Genetics/Taxonomy of Mucuna potential, particularly those that supportalternative treatments for Parkinson’s. Some In this issue, we focus on potential genetic trials with humans have been conducted and improvement of Mucuna. We will therefore report reported in literature, indicating improved references to two types of articles. First, we will performance of Mucuna over synthetic L- list articles/texts on Mucuna taxonomy and dopa; such trials were, however, limited in genetics, most notably those by L. Capo-chichi size. A product tested in one of the trials, who is currently conducting his Ph.D. studies on the topic at Auburn University, USA, but also Indian Food and Drug Administration and is several articles from Indonesia in the 1970s and also from the early 20th century USA. We will also report on articles/texts that describe genetic Food and Drug Administration has approved variability in Mucuna, whether from an agronomic Capo-chichi, L.J.A, Weaver, D.B. and C.M.
subtropical hillside environments. Field Crop variabilty among velvetbean (Mucuna sp.)accessions. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Mohan, V.R. and K. Janardhanan. 1995.
Chemical analysis and nutritional assessment oflesser known pulses of the genus, Mucuna.
Capo-chichi, L., Weaver, D., and C. Morton.
2001. AFLP Assessment of genetic variabilityamong velvetbean (Mucuna sp.) accessions.
Mary Josephine, R. and K. Janardhanan. 1992.
Studies on chemical composition and anti-nutritional factors in three germplasm seed St-Laurent, L., Livesey, J., Arnason, J.T. and A.
materials of the tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens (L.) Bruneau. Variation in L-dopa concentration in accessions of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. and inMucuna brachycarpa Rech. Forthcoming. Food Wilmot-Dear, C. M. 1991. A revision of Mucuna and Feed From Mucuna: Current Uses and the (Leguminosae-Phaseolae) in the Philippines.
Way Forward. Proceedings of a workshop held in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, April 26-29, 2000.
CIDICCO, Honduras. (Please watch future Wilmot-Dear, C. M. 1984. A revision of Mucuna issues of this bulletin for further information.) (Leguminosae-Phaseolae) in China and Japan.
Kew Bulletin 39(1): 23-65.
Qi, A. et al. 2000. Validation of a photothermalphenology model for predicting dates of flowering Kay, D. E. 1979. Crop and Product Digest No.
and maturity in legume cover crops using field 3—Food Legumes. Tropical Products Institute, Lubis, S.H.A., Sastrapradja, S., Lubis, I., and D.
Siddhuraju, P., Becker, K., and H.P.S. Makkar.
Sastrapradja. 1980. Genetic varation of Mucuna 2000. Studies on the nutritional composition and pruriens (l.) DC. IV. Inheritance and genotypes antinutritional factors of three different of seed coat colours. Annales Bogorienses VII germplasm seed materials of an under-utilized tropical legume, Mucuna pruriens var. Utilis.
Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 46:6043- Lubis, S.H.A., Lubis, I., Sastrapradja, D., and S.
Sastrapradja. 1979. Genetic variation ofMucuna pruriens (l.) DC. III. Inheritance of pod Prakash, D. and S.K. Tewari. 1999. Variation of hairs. Annales Bogorienses VII (1):1-10.
L-dopa contents in Mucuna species. Journal ofMedicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences 21:343- Lubis, S.H.A., Sastrapradja, S., Lubis, I., and D.
Sastrapradja. 1978. Genetic variation ofMucuna pruriens (l.) DC. II. Inheritance of flower Carsky, R.J., S.A. Tarawali, M. Becker, D.
color. Annales Bogorienses VI (4):187-191.
Chikoye, G. Tian, and N. Sanginga. 1998.
Mucuna – herbaceous cover legume with Lubis, S.H.A., Sastrapradja, S., Lubis, I., and D.
potential for multiple uses. Resource and Crop Mucuna pruriens (l.) DC. II. Floral biology and International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, pollination mechanism. Annales Bogorienses VI Lorenzetti, F., S. MacIsaac, J.T. Arnason, D.V.C.
Lubis, I., Lubis, S.H., Sastrapradja, D., and S.
Sastrapradja. 1976. Methionine contents in phytochemistry, toxicology, and food potential of seeds of Mucuna species. Annales Bogorienses velvetbean. In D. Buckles, E. Eteka, O. Osiname, M. Galiba and G. Galiano (Eds.). Cover Crops inWest Africa: Contributing to Sustainable Sastrapradja, D.S., Sastrapradja, S., Aminah, Agriculture, p 67-84. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, S.H. and I. Lubis. 1975. Species differentation in Javanese Mucuna with particular reference toseedling morphology. Anneles bogorienses VI Keatinge, J.D.H., A. Qi, T.R. Wheeler, R.H. Ellis, P.Q. Craufurd, and R.J. Summerfield. 1996.
Photothermal effects on the phenology of annual Aminah, S.H., Sastrapradja, S., Lubis, I., legume crops with potential for use as cover Sastrapradja, D. and S. Idris. 1974. Irritant hairs of Mucuna species. Annales BogoriensesV(4):179-186.
Sastrapradja, S., Sastrapradja, D., Aminah, S.H.,Lubis, I. And S. Idris. 1972. Comparativeseedling morphology of Mucuna pruriens group.
Anneles bogorienses V (3):131-141.
Scott, J.M. 1919. Velvet bean varieties.
University of Florida Agricultural Station Bulletin152. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Coe, H.S. 1918. Origin of the Georgia andAlabama varieties of velvet bean. Journal of theAmerican Society of Agronomy 12:175-179. Belling, J. 1916. The time of ripening of velvet-bean varieties. University of Florida AgriculturalExperiment Station Press Bulletin no. 241.
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Belling, J. 1915. Inheritance of length of pod incertain crosses. Journal of Agricultural Research10:405-421. Belling, J. 1914. A study of semi-sterility.
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