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abnormal behavior, and diagnostic thresh- disorder, 162, 163, 164, 166. See also in- anticholinergic drugs, 142, 146 – 47, 174.
See also Paxil (paroxetine hydrochloride) antidepressants: for children and adoles- adolescents, and antidepressants, 198– 99, cents, 198– 99, 205 – 6; and emotional blunting, 8; marketing of, 4, 17, 106 – 17, 121; risks of, 117–18, 198; for social anxiety disorder, 120 –21. See also Paxil advertising: by drug companies, 105, 106 – 17; for Paxil, 105, 121– 34. See also mar- advocacy groups, and marketing, 136 – 37 antisocial personality disorder (aspd), 15 – anxiety: causes and effects of, 19 –20, 104; and DSM-III, 2– 3, 39 – 42, 47– 48; 149 – 53; drug treatments for, 140 – 41, ture and Statistics, 42– 47, 51– 56; and anger, 162– 63; Freudian views of, 31– DSM-IIIR, 97; maintaining DSM cate- 35, 154 – 55, 157, 160; historic views of, 8, 9, 11–14; and marketing of Paxil, 121; as rational response to stress, 139, 168; hoc committee on DSM-III, 54 – 55 anxiety disorders: and “chemical imbal- Amitriptyline hydrochloride, as tricyclic 139; Freudian view of, 32– 34; and mar- Braff, Zach, Garden State (film), 9, 182– diagnostic categories of, in DSM-III, 54, 67, 76, 78–79, 92– 97, 195; psychody- namic approaches to, 54; statistical per- centages for, 199, 213n1. See also anxiety Anxiety Disorders Association of America, sciousness, 149, 153. See also neuropsy- anxiety neurosis: DSM-II, 42– 43, 72; DSM- III, 46, 56, 75 –76; Feighner criteria for, anxiolytics, as drug treatment for anxiety, Burton, Richard, The Anatomy of Melan- apathy, as “mental disorder,” 194, 199, Canada, as source for prescription drugs, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Carroll, Lewis, Alice in Wonderland, 58– avoidant personality, and social anxiety, Cassels, Alan, with Ray Moynihan, Selling avoidant personality disorder (apd), 1; and and DSM-III, 56, 74, 78–79, 92, 94 – 97, 114; and DSM-IV, 97; and marketing children: danger of ssris to, 118–19, 142; Ayd, Frank, Recognizing the Depressed Pa- general drug treatments for, 168, 198 – chronic, as term, and DSM diagnostic crite- Beyond Therapy (U.S. government report), biology: and mental disorders, 19 –20, 21, 63 – 64, 205; and perceptions of anxiety, blood-clotting problems, as side effect of cognitive-behavior therapy, 141, 162– 66, blushing: and anxiety, 29 – 30; and social Cohn and Wolfe, public relations firm, 117; disorder, as term with biological connota- tions, 56. See also mental disorders Dr. Mukti and Other Tales of Woe (Self ), 9, compulsive sexual behavior, as mental dis- charities, funding for, 135 – 37; cultural 153; role of, in mental illness, 206; and backlash against, 172–77; and fda, 112, 114, 229n72; guidelines and medical in- Corrections, The (Franzen), 9, 172– 82, ventories established by, 135 – 36; mar- 13 –14, 43, 101– 3, 104, 137, 199; rela- 114, 202– 4; and research funding, 73 – culture: and diagnostic categories, 18; and 75; and side effects, 119; and ties to DSM, Darwin, Charles: on anxiety, 20; Descent of 146 – 49, 151, 205 –7, 208; for children Man, 29; The Expression of the Emotions and adolescents, 118–19, 142, 168, 198– in Man and Animals, 14, 29, 47, 48, 99, 234 – 35n9; and emotional blunting, 219n46; and shyness as adaptive trait, 107, 151, 182, 238n28; and managed health care, 194, 197– 98, 221n5; and neuropsychiatry, 35 – 37, 104, 153, 162, depression: drug treatments for, 153; and DSM (The Diagnostic and Statistical Man- marketing of drugs, 106 –17, 120 –21, ual of Mental Disorders): and pharma- 134 – 35; side effects of medication, 117– ceutical industry, 3, 6, 37, 104, 114, 120 – 21; revisions to and expansion of, 2– 3, DSM-I (1952), 36 – 37, 38, 80, 91, 170 De Quincey, Thomas, Confessions of an DSM-II (1968): diagnostic categories of, 38, 40, 41– 42, 75, 92; and ICD-8, 37– Diagnosis, The (Lightman), 9, 185 – 88, diagnostic criteria, and DSM-III, 24, 38, DSM-III (1980): and advocacy groups, 136; 46 – 56, 60 – 61; and avoidant personal- 94 – 97, 114; diagnostic criteria of, 24, 38, 56 – 69, 201–2; general expansion of Dickens, Charles, Little Dorrit, 219n47 disorders in, 2– 3, 37, 68–70, 92– 97, 120 –21, 139, 141; inclusion of panic dis- order and social phobia in, 17, 50, 71– Feinstein, Alvan, on psychiatric diagnosis, explosive disorder (ied), 15, 195; and in- troverted personality disorder (ipd), 78, anxiety disorders in, 92– 97, 120 –21; anxiety disorder, 121, 122, 125 –26, 139; approval of ssris in general, 1–2, 118; 9, 80, 81, 88, 91, 97, 202; selection and 229n72; and marketing of Paxil, 120, 51– 56, 202; and task force politics, 39 – DSM-IIIR (1987), 43, 44, 202; diagnostic DSM-IV (1994), 3, 15; diagnostic criteria Franzen, Jonathan, The Corrections, 9, Freedom From Fear (fff), 123, 125, 132, 136 in, 43, 97–101, 104; satire of, in Dr. Freud, Sigmund: on anxiety, 19, 32– 35, Mukti and Other Tales of Woe (Self ), 141, 154 – 55, 157, 160 – 61, 165, 168; and 191– 93; and social anxiety disorder, 76, biomedicine, 26, 32, 166; Civilization and Its Discontents, 34 – 35, 161, 188; DSM-V, likely diagnostic criteria for, 194 – concept of normal behavior, 27; The Ego and the Id, 160 – 61; and Emil Kraepelin, on the form and speed of treatment,33 – 34, 154 – 55, 165; Inhibitions, Symp- toms and Anxiety, 34; “The Justification sis,” 32– 33; Project for a Scientific Psy- emotional blunting, from antidepressants, chology, 31– 32; on the superego as a cause of anxiety, 34 – 35, 160 – 62; and systemic suffering, 205; “‘Wild’ Psycho- analysis,” 154 – 55, 165. See also psycho- Erwin, Brigitte, on social anxiety disorder, of DSM-III, 25 –26, 46 – 47, 53 – 54, 75, extroversion: and DSM-III, 82; cultural ex- Garden State (film), 9, 182– 85, 188 Gelder, Michael, and DSM-III inclusion of GlaxoSmithKline (UK), and health risks of homosexuality, and DSM-II and DSM-III, Paxil, 117–19, 139 – 49, 234 – 35n41. See also Smith, Kline and French; Smith- Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind Huxley, Aldous, Brave New World, 169 – and David J. Katzelnick, Social AnxietyDisorder: A Guide, 4, 20 insurance companies, and DSM diagnosis, 3 Griesinger, Wilhelm: Mental Pathology intermittent explosive disorder (ied), 7, and Therapeutics, 21, 29; and normal behavior, 27, 32; and scientific psychia- International Classification of Diseases (ICD), and updating of DSM, 3, 37– 38, introversion, cultural view of, 158, 207– 9introverted personality disorder (ipd), evolution of, and DSM-III, 9, 66 – 67, Hardy, Thomas, The Mayor of Caster- Hartenberg, Paul, Les Timides et la timi- Hawthorne, Nathaniel, and his “philoso- healthcare system, U.S.: and DSM, 3, 40; and David J. Katzelnick, Social Anxiety Healy, David, 43, 198; The Antidepressant Era, 25, 73; on categorical distinctions in DSM-III, 69, 75 –76, 199; on drug spective of DSM-III, 50; on regulation of Jungians, and DSM-III classification of in- Lewis, Sir Aubrey, and ICD-8, 38 kappa index of reliability, and DSM-III, 68, Katzelnick, David J., with John H. Greist and James W. Jefferson, Social Anxiety 100 –101; and social phobia/social anxi- ety disorder, as DSM category, 7, 93 –101 Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind Lightman, Alan: The Diagnosis, 9, 185 – 88, 190, 244n32; Einstein’s Dreams, 185 Kesey, Ken, One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Kessler, Ronald, and retention of mild dis- kidney failure, as side effect, and Paxil, 118, DSM-III, American Psychoanalytic Soci- Kierkegaard, Søren, The Concept of Anxi- Kirk, Stuart A., with Herb Kutchins, 68– 194, 197– 98, 221n5; and dtc market- ing, 112; escalating cost of, and psycho- and descriptive diagnosis, 36, 44, 63 – marketing, pharmaceutical: and diagnostic 64, 205; and “introversion” as term, 79, 196 – 97; guidelines and inventories for, 135 – 37; of medical conditions, 134 – 35; Kraepelin, Emil, 32, 35 – 36, 44, 166; and of Paxil, 117–19; of psychotropic drugs, Alzheimer’s disease, 177; biological per- 199 –200; satire of, in The Corrections, spective of, 21–28, 218n32; and diag- 180 – 81; and social anxiety disorder, 4 – nostic criteria of DSM-III, 61, 63, 64; Lectures on Clinical Psychiatry, 22, 23 Kramer, Peter D., 78, 233n27; Against De- pression, 233n27; and “cosmetic psy- ing, 105; and DSM-III inclusion of social chopharmacology,” 17, 195; Listening to phobia, 71–75; Fears and Phobias, 12– Kutchins, Herb, with Stuart Kirk, 68– 69; Marshall, John R., Social Phobia: From Shyness to Stage Fright, 135 – 36 Le Carré, John, The Constant Gardener, Lewis, C. S., The Chronicles of Narnia, 181 medical insurance: and diagnostic criteria, 61; and psychoanalysis, 28– 35, 40; and 64; and DSM influence, 3; and psycho- policy, 207. See also pharmacology; psy- neurosis: deletion from DSM-III, 48– 49, 50 – 51, 52– 53, 60, 73; as diagnostic mental disorders: acceptance of, and drug treatment, 194 –202; alleged biological foundations of, 19 –20, 21, 63 – 64, 205; 147– 48. See also cholinergic system; se- definition and marketing of, 101– 3; di- agnostic criteria for, 56 – 58, 61– 65; and DSM inclusion, 197, 204 – 5; and phar- Merck pharmaceutical company, 106Millon, Theodore, 43 – 44, 88, 89, 94, 95 office-related anxiety, and pharmaceutical Mintz, Morton, The Therapeutic Night- Moynihan, Ray, with Alan Cassels, Selling panic disorder: and inclusion in DSM-III, National Comorbidity Survey (1990 – 92), paroxetine. See Paxil (paroxetine hydro- Paxil (paroxetine hydrochloride): and ade- National Institutes of Health, and funding marketing of, 4 – 5, 105 – 6, 117– 34, 136, neo-Kraepelinians, 25 –26, 50, 63 – 64 approval of, 120, 125, 139; fictional por- trayal of, 187; as Paxil cr (“Controlled 172; and diagnostic criteria in DSM, 69 – Release”), 121; for public speaking anxi- treatments, 149, 151, 153, 162, 167, 194 – drome, 139 – 40, 142, 147– 48; as Sero- and “neurosis” as term, 52– 53, 60, 65; from, 7, 117–19, 120, 132– 33, 139, 141– neuropsychiatry: biochemical focus of, 20, 102– 3, 204; as treatment for social anxi- 210 –11; and descriptive diagnosis, 35 – 36; and DSM-III, 46 – 47, 49 – 50, 60 – personality disorders, 8, 66 – 67, 78 –79 psychoanalysis: counterintuitive perspec- tive on anxiety, 34 – 35, 36, 165 – 66, and advocacy groups, 136 – 37; and mar- DSM diagnostic criteria, 3; and dsm-iii pharmaceutical companies. See drug com- task force perspective, 3, 25 –28, 46 – ceptance of, 37– 38, 50; and medical in- surance coverage, 40, 221n5; and neo- pharmacological dystopia, and Brave New Kraepelinians, 25 –26, 50, 63 – 64; and pharmacology, 188; cosmetic use of, 16 – tionship with psychiatry, 6, 34, 35 – 37, 40, 104; and self-recrimination, 161– 62; mental illness, 106 –7, 134, 153; and psy- and treatment of anxiety, 33 – 34, 154 – chiatry, 104. See also neuropsychiatry; World Health Organization, 3, 37– 38.
post-traumatic stress disorder (ptsd), 42, 167; and perspective of DSM-III, 46 – 47 ment for depression and anxiety, 13 –14; contentious history of, 228n41; and DSM-V, 195; first known as “Late Luteal Freudian theory, 27. See also neuropsy- 173; and partial inclusion in DSM-IIIR Prozac (fluoxetine hydrochloride), 2, 105; psychotropic drugs: and diagnostic crite- fictional portrayal of, 186 – 87; Listening ria, 199 –200; and human identity, 169 – to Prozac (Kramer), 169 –72, 177; as 240n8; as ssri, 117, 121, 147, 167, 169 – sponses to, 204 – 5; drug treatments for, bia/social anxiety disorder, 5, 100 –101, psychiatry: biomedical focus of, 104, 208; 135 – 36, 160, 166 – 67. See also stage (Kramer), 171–72; credibility of, and re- Public Speaking–Social Anxiety Center of form, 204 – 6; and DSM-III diagnostic criteria, 18, 56 – 61, 195; historical refer-ences, 14 –17; and medical insurance, 40, 221n5; as partner to pharmacology, Rankine, Claudia, Don’t Let Me Be Lonely, Scott, Susie, on shyness, 116, 157– 58, 163, and drug treatment, 139 – 41, 148. See of, 118; as medication for children, 151, renal failure, as side effect, and Paxil, 118, 209; and selfhood, 170 –71; side effects of, 101, 118, 151, 153, 167, 171, 238n28; reticence, drug treatment for, 102. See also versus maois, 114, 233n26. See also anti- road rage, 7, 202, 204. See also intermit- Self, Will: Dr. Mukti and Other Tales of Woe, 9, 188 – 93; The Quantity Theory of Insanity, 188, 191– 92; The Sweet Smell Rounsaville, Bruce, drawing of DSM-III serotonin: and alleged links to depression and anxiety, 13 –14; deficiency of, and Sabshin, Melvin, and DSM-III, 40 – 41, 42, marketing of Paxil, 123; and ssris, 147– Samson, biblical figure, and antisocial per- Seroxat. See Paxil (paroxetine hydrochlo- Satel, Sally, with Christina Hoff Sommers, One Nation under Therapy, 201, 205, Shergold, Adrian, Dirty Filthy Love (film), shyness: advocacy and support groups for, schizoid, as term, 79, 81, 85, 86, 89, 91 136 – 37; cultural views of, and selfhood, schizoid personality disorder (spd), 163, 8– 9, 17–18, 207–11; and DSM-III, 47; interpretive history of, 11–16; medica- 95; evolution of, in DSM-III, 9, 80 – 91, tion for, 16 –17, 102– 3, 121, 139, 204; as social anxiety, 4, 18, 122, 157– 59. See schizophrenia: and DSM-II, 38; and Emil also introverted personality disorder One Nation under Therapy, 201, 205, side effects: of drugs for anxiety disorders, 141– 49; of Paxil in particular, 117–19, 120, 132– 33, 167; of ssris in general, Spitzer, Robert L.: as chair, dsm-iii task force, 6 –7, 38, 39 – 46; and DSM cre- ation of categories, 79 – 82; and DSM di- agnostic criteria, 56 –70; and DSM-II, company, 37. See also GlaxoSmithKline; 37– 38, 41– 42; and DSM-IIIR, 96, 97– 101; and DSM neuropsychiatry frame- Smith, Mikey, Social History of the Minor work, 46 – 51, 60, 194 – 95; inclusion of social phobia in DSM-III, 71–78; and in- troversion as personality disorder, 78– 105 – 6, 117– 34, 136; and social phobia nostic quizzes of, 135–37. See also Glaxo- stage fright, 12. See also public speaking statistical accuracy, and proliferation of social anxiety disorder (sad): alleged bio- logical origins of, 19 –20; and introver- sion, 83; marketing of drugs for, 104 – 5, Stevenson, Robert Louis, Strange Case of 116 –19, 120 –21, 137– 38; marketing of Paxil in particular for, 105 – 6, 121– 34; suicide ideation, as side effect of ssris, threshold for, 4, 200. See also social superego, and Freudian theory, 160 – 61 social phobia, 8, 9, 207; as anxiety disor- Szasz, Thomas S., The Myth of Mental Ill- der, 6, 19, 160 – 68; cultural views of, 12, 15, 17–18; diagnostic criteria for, 65, 78,92– 93, 99 –100, 102; and DSM-III, 7, Tauzin, W. J. “Billy,” and phrma, 203, DSM-IIIR, 96 –101; fictional view of, 193; and pharmaceutical market, 98, 120 –21, 135 – 36, 144; and Pierre Janet, 30; re- Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian der, 97–100; statistical percentages for, 213n1, 244n35; treatment and therapyfor, 153, 160 – 68. See also social anxiety social services, and DSM influence, 3 Sommers, Christina Hoff, with Sally Satel, withdrawal symptoms, and Paxil, 117, 118, World Health Organization: and ICD, 3, 41; and ICD-8, 37–38; and mental-health policy, 200 Wurtzel, Elizabeth, Prozac Nation, 182 Zoloft (sertraline hydrochloride), 2, 105, 121, 147; marketing of, 117, 137– 38; as treatment for intermittent explosive dis-

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S.-O. Enfors: Publication list , original papers Anaerobic Degradation of Nitrilotriacetate (NTA) by Bacteria. Vatten, 27, 162-163 1973 Enfors S-O. and N. Molin. (1973) Biodegradation of Nitrilotriacetate (NTA) by Bacteria. - Isolation of Bacteria Able to Grow Anaerobically with NTA as a Sole Carbon Source. Water Res., 7 , 881-888. Biodegradation of Nitrilotriacetate (NTA) by Bacteria.

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CENTRO HOSPITALAR DE SETÚBAL, E.P.E. Hospital de São Bernardo Hospital Ortopédico Sant’iago do Outão Comissão de ética para a saúde   COMISSÃO DE ÉTICA PARA A SAÚDE    RELATÓRIO SINÓPTICO DO MANDATO 2006‐2009    A Comissão de Ética para a Saúde, adiante designada por CES, iniciou o mandato em Março de  2006.  Sistematizam

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