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Persian Journal of Acarology, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 335–339. Corresspondence

Mites associated with the date palm (Phoenix
dactylifera L.) in
Larestan (Fars province), southern Iran

Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran; e-mails: maryam_majidi81@ yahoo.com; akrami@shirazu.ac.ir Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the important fruit crops of Iran with more than 185000 hectares harvested areas, about 875000 tons annual production and 120000 tons fruits export according to FAO reports in 2004 so, in this regards it is the second largest producer country among the main producing countries of the world. Most regions of date palm plantations are located from south west to south east of Iran. In this research, mite fauna associated with the date palm trees in Larestan (Fars province), southern Iran is studied. Larestan is located in the south of Iran, Fars province, between the latitudes 27º 05´ to 28º 30´ N and longitudes 52º 25´ to 55º 38´ E and altitudes of 800–950 m above sea level, and is known as one of the divisions of the tropical area of the province. This region covers an area of 16,000 sq. km. Date is the main garden product in this region and area under cultivation of dates reaches 3,630 hectares. This study deals with mites associated with the date palm in Larestan, Fars province, southern Iran. Mites inhabiting date palms (soil, leaves, fruits and trunk fibers) studied during 2009–2011. The present study has revealed records of 56 species belonging to 47 genera and 34 families. The genus Schizonobiella of the family Tetranychidae is introduced as new record for mite fauna of Iran. Twenty six genera and species are new records for the date palm fauna in the world. For the first time, the oribatid mites associated with trunk fiber of date palms are introduced. These mites were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: 8 species belong to phytophagous mites (families Tetranychidae, Tenuipalpidae and Eriophyidae), 27 species belong to predacious mites (families Cheyletidae, Caligonellidae, Raphignath-idae, Camerobiidae, Cunaxidae, Bdellidae, Iolinidae, Smarididae, Phytoseiidae, Parasit-idae, Ologamasidae and Rhodacaridae), while the remaining species belong to families of different feeding habits especially fungivorous (Eupodidae, Tydeidae, Urodinych-idae, Acaridae, and 12 families belonging to oribatid mites). Samples were transferred to the Acarological laboratory of the Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University. Mites were extracted using a Berlese funnel or stereomicroscope. Specimens were removed, cleared in lactophenol and mounted in Hoyer's medium on glass microscopic slides for identification. The slides were placed in an oven at 45°C for 10 days and then the specimens were examined using a light microscope. Specimens are deposited in the Acarological Collection of the Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. The present study has revealed 26 genera and species are new records for the date palm
fauna in the world that marked by one asterisk (*). Also all species are new records for
Larestan.

Phytophagous mite fauna associated with date palm in Larestan Tetranychidae Donnadieu, 1975
Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor, 1939): 40 specimens (33 ♀, 7 ♂).
- Schizonobiella* sp.: 2 specimens (nymph).
Comments: This genus is the first record for Iran.
- Bryobia* rubrioculus (Scheuten, 1857): 2 specimens (♀).
- Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein, 1960): 15 specimens (6 ♀, 5 ♂ and 4 nymphs).
Tenuipalpidae Berlese, 1913
- Raoiella indica Hirst, 1924: 16 specimens (5 ♀, 3 ♂, 8 nymphs).
- Tenuipalpus eriophyoides Baker, 1948: 10 specimens (7 ♀, 3 nymphs).
Eriophyidae Nalepa, 1898
-
Tegonotus* sp.: 10 specimens (♀).
-
Tetra* sp.: 10 specimens (8 ♀ + 2 ♂).
Predacious mite fauna associated with date palm in Larestan Raphignathidae Kramer, 1877
-
Rhaphignathus* hecmatanaensis Khanjani & Ueckermann, 2003: 5 specimens (♀).
-
Raphignathus* giselae Meyer and Ueckermann, 1989: 3 specimens (♀).
- Raphignathus larestanensis Bagheri et al. 2011: 3 specimens (♀).
Caligonellidae Grandjean, 1944
-
Molothrognathus mehrnejadi* Liang & Zhang, 1997: 6 specimens (5 ♀, 1 nymph).
- Molothrognathus azizi* (Ueckermann & Khanjani, 2003): 3 specimens.
Camerobiidae Southcott, 1957
-
Neophyllobius fissus* De Leon, 1967: 5 specimens (3 ♀, 2 nymphs).
Cunaxidae Thor, 1902
-
Cunaxa* capreolus Berlese, 1890: 3 specimens (1 ♀, 1 ♂, 1 nymph).
Bdellidae Duges, 1834
-
Spinibdella sp.: 2 specimens.
- Spinibdella cronini* (Baker & Balock, 1944): 8 specimens (2 ♀, 4 ♂, 2 nymphs).
Cheyletidae Leach, 1815
-
Cheyletus* sp.: 1 specimen.
- Acaropsella* cf. volgini (Gerson, 1967): 2 specimens.
- Hemicheyletia bakeri (Ehara, 1962): 5 specimens (2 ♀, 3 ♂).
Iolinidae Pritchard, 1956
- Pronematus cf. fleschneri Baker, 1968: 4 specimens (2 ♀, 2 ♂).
Smarididae Vitzthum, 1929
-
Fessonia sp.: 5 specimens (nymph).
Ologamasidae Ryke, 1962
-
Gamasiphis* sp.: 2 specimens (1 ♀, 1 ♂).
Rhodacaridae Oudemans, 1902
-
Rhodacarellus* iraniensis Castilho et al. 2012: 1 specimen (♀).
336 MAJIDI & AKRAMI: MITES ASSOCIATED WITH THE DATE PALM 2013 - Multidentorhodacarus* saboorii Castilho et al. 2012: 1 specimen (♀).
Phytoseiidae Berlese, 1916
-
Neoseiulus marginatus (Wainstein, 1961): 1 specimen (♀).
- Neoseiulus astutus* (Beglyarov, 1960): 1 specimen (♀).
- Neoseiulus bicaudus (Wainstein, 1962): 1 specimen (♀).
- Typhlodromus vulgaris* Ehara, 1959: 1 specimen (♀).
Parasitidae Oudemans, 1901
-
Parasitus sp.: 1 specimen (♀).
Laelapidae Berlese, 1892
-
Gaeolaelaps sp.: 4 specimens (♀).
- Gaeolaelaps aculeifer (G. Canestrini, 1884): 2 specimens (♀).
- Gaeolaelaps minor* (Costa, 1968): 2 specimens (1 ♀, 1 nymph).
Macrochelidae Vitzthum, 1930
-
Macrocheles* sp.: 6 specimens (5 ♀, 1 nymph).
Sejidae Berlese, 1885
-
Sejus* sp.: 4 specimens (2 ♀, 2 nymphs).

Mite fauna with different feeding habits associated with date palm in Larestan Eupodidae Koch, 1842
-
Eupodes sp.
Materials: 5 specimens (2 ♀, 2 ♂, 1 nymph).
Tydeidae Kramer, 1877
-
Brachytydeus* sp.: 4 specimens (♀).
Urodinychidae Berlese, 1917
-
Uroobovella* obovata Canestrini & Berlese, 1884: 4 specimens (2 ♀, 1 ♂, 1 nymph).
- Uroobovella* cf. obovata Canestrini & Berlese, 1884: 1 specimen (♀).
Aphelacaridae Grandjean, 1954
-
Aphelacarus* acarinus (Berlese, 1910): 3 specimens (♀).
Cosmochthoniidae Grandjean, 1947
- Phyllozetes* tauricus Gordeeva, 1978: 1 specimen.
Euphthiracaridae Jacot, 1930
-
Acrotritia* ardua (Koch, 1841): 10 specimens (♀).
Lohmanniidae Berlese, 1916
- Lohmannia (Lohmannia) turcmenica Bulanova-Zachvatkina, 1960: 5 specimens (4 ♀,
1 nymph).
Epilohmanniidae Oudemans, 1923
- Epilohmannia cylindrica cylindrica (Berlese, 1904): 15 specimens (13 ♀ and 2 ♂).
Haplochthoniidae Hammen, 1959
-
Haplochthonius (Haplochthonius) sanctaeluciae* Bernini, 1973: 8 specimens (♀).
Microzetidae Grandjean, 1936
-
Berlesezetes* sp. : 2 specimens (♀).
Oppiidae Sellnick, 1937
- Lasiobelba* (Antenoppia) heterosa (Wallwork, 1964): 11 specimens (5 ♀ and 6 ♂).
- Discoppia* (Cylindroppia) cylindrica (Perez-Inigo, 1965): 4 specimens (♀).
- Multioppia* (Multioppia) sp.:1 specimen (♂).
Gymnodamaeidae Grandjean, 1954
- Plesiodamaeus* ornatus Perez-Inigo, 1972: 3 specimens (♀).
Scheloribatidae Jacot, 1935
- Scheloribates (Scheloribates) fimbriatus* Thor, 1930: 26 specimens: (18 ♀, 8 ♂).
Galumnidae Jacot, 1925
-
Galumna (Galumna) karajica* Mahunka and Akrami, 2001: 9 specimens (♀).
Haplozetidae Grandjean, 1936
-
Trachyoribates* (Rostrozetes) persiangulfi Akrami et al. 2011: 11 specimens (♀).
- Protoribates* paracapusinus (Mahunka, 1988): 8 specimens (♀).
- Baloghiella* granulata Bayartogtokh & Akrami, 2000: 9 specimens (4 ♀, 5 ♂).
Acaridae Latreille, 1802
-
Tyrophagus putrescentiae Schrank, 1781: 9 specimens (6 ♀, 2 ♂, 1 nymph).
Acknowledgements
We gratefully acknowledge Dr. Edward A. Ueckermann (Research Institute, Private
Bag X134, Queenswood, Pretoria, 0121 South Africa) for kind cooperetion and his help
in the identification of some species. We also extend our cordial thanks to Mr. Raphael
C. Castilho (Department of Entomology and Acarology, ESALQ-University of Sao
Paulo, 13418-900 Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil), Dr. Cal Welbourn, (Florida
Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry), Dr.
Hashem Kamali (Research Center of Khorasan Razavi province, Mashhad, Iran), Dr.
Hasan Rahmani (Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran), Dr. Shahrooz Kazemi, (Center of
Science, High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Kerman, Iran) and Dr.
Mohammad Bagheri (University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran) for identification and
supporting.
References

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L.) ﺎﻣﺮﺧ ﺎﺑ ﻂﺒﺗﺮﻣ ي ﻪﻨﮐ
ناﺮﯾا بﻮﻨﺟ
ﯽﻣﺮﮐا ﯽﻠﻋﺪﻤﺤﻣ و يﺪﯿﺠﻣ ﻢﯾﺮﻣ

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