By Llewelyn Williams (retired) and James A. Duke, SEA botanist1
Increasingly, it shows up in "health
sist of five ovate leaflets. It blooms in
a bright crimson berry, containing one to
to 4 inches long, and up to 1 inch thick.
the soil can be tilled. Only scarified or
whole roots are acceptable in the trade.
fat, 2.6 percent ash, <100 IU (Inter-
niacin, 234 mg calcium; 4.90 mg iron, <
ease to new plantations. This is also the
least expensive way to start a plantation
PLANT MATERIALS Seedlings
from seeds. Several firms sell I-, 2-, or
old seedlings, and roots, the first crop
fall after planting, which may be used for
permanent beds, 8 inches apart each with fiber-free woodland soil. If the soil is way. Closer spacing tends to increase inclined to be heavy, add enough sand disease in the plantation.
Roots may be set any time from October to April, after soil has been Selection of proper location, prep- tilled. Fall planting, however, is usually
preferred. Plant roots 2 inches below the
site for beds is a hardwood forest, with
best in loamy soil, such as found in plants and, if located on flat ground, to oak and sugar maple forests in the facilitate good runoff of water. Slope the North. Shade is essential.
and free circulation of air. Shade can be
forest planting. Laths should run north to
good soil can be conditioned for ginseng
gives best results. Very sandy soil tends
to produce hard, flinty roots of inferior
cultivation. The beds should be kept free
essential to prevent heaving by frost. A
mid-October of the fifth to seventh year.
1 ounce in the fresh state. Older roots,
buckwheat straw are also suitable if they
characteristic circular markings. Do not
of barnyard and chemical fertilizers Some growers replant young and lessens the resemblance of cultivated
Dry the roots in a well ventilated, heated
60º and 80º F, and after a few days the
growers, is to start drying between 100º
and 110º and when roots wilt, lower the
frequently, but handle with care to avoid
will need to be dried for about 6 weeks;
estimated weight of dried 6-year-old root
heat, as it tends to discolor the surface
stored in a dry, airy, rodent proof place
The market for ginseng root is limited. It is estimated that 95 percent of the ginseng collected or grown in the United States is exported to the Orient. During the 3-year period, 1969 through 1971, such exports averaged only 158,980 pounds of dried root per year. The prices paid for ginseng are high and fluctuate greatly. During the same 3-year period, export price-per-pound aver- ages were $38.12, $30.83, and $34.5 1. A recent Foreign Agriculture Service report indicated that at $12.6 million in 1975 total U.S. ginseng exports were up to 13.5 percent from the $11.1 million of 1974. Annual U.S. production at that time was estimated at 250,000 pounds, 75 percent of it cultivated and 25 percent harvested from the wild. The producer was said to reap only $20 per pound, and average yields were around 1,500 pounds per acre. If only $5 per pound is profit, and the plant is harvested only every 5 years, that amounts to only $1,500 per acre per year, much less than some of the exaggerated claims seen in advertisements in popular magazines. High initial cost of planting stock, susceptibility to diseases, long maturing period, and a limited market indicate ginseng farming should be approached conservatively. Since yields of dried root average about 1 ton per acre, 100 to 200 acres of mature ginseng could easily supply the total market for 1 year.
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 19780--256-023
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Therapeutic advance of biopharmaceuticals . 6 Table 1. Prescrire definitions of the evaluation categories . 7 Table 2. Prescrire evaluations of the therapeutic value of biopharmaceuticals and all other drugs (Jan 1986 – June 2004) . 9 Table 3. Prescrire evaluations of biopharmaceutical indications over time .10 Drug share and prevalence rates for biopharmaceuticals .11 The social benefi