By Llewelyn Williams (retired) and James A. Duke, SEA botanist1 Increasingly, it shows up in "health DESCRIPTION
sist of five ovate leaflets. It blooms in a bright crimson berry, containing one to to 4 inches long, and up to 1 inch thick. the soil can be tilled. Only scarified or whole roots are acceptable in the trade. fat, 2.6 percent ash, <100 IU (Inter- niacin, 234 mg calcium; 4.90 mg iron, < ease to new plantations. This is also the least expensive way to start a plantation PLANT MATERIALS
from seeds. Several firms sell I-, 2-, or old seedlings, and roots, the first crop fall after planting, which may be used for permanent beds, 8 inches apart each with fiber-free woodland soil. If the soil is way. Closer spacing tends to increase inclined to be heavy, add enough sand disease in the plantation. Roots may be set any time from October to April, after soil has been Selection of proper location, prep- tilled. Fall planting, however, is usually preferred. Plant roots 2 inches below the site for beds is a hardwood forest, with best in loamy soil, such as found in plants and, if located on flat ground, to oak and sugar maple forests in the facilitate good runoff of water. Slope the North. Shade is essential. and free circulation of air. Shade can be forest planting. Laths should run north to good soil can be conditioned for ginseng gives best results. Very sandy soil tends to produce hard, flinty roots of inferior Cultivation
cultivation. The beds should be kept free Mulching
essential to prevent heaving by frost. A mid-October of the fifth to seventh year. 1 ounce in the fresh state. Older roots, buckwheat straw are also suitable if they Fertilizer
characteristic circular markings. Do not of barnyard and chemical fertilizers Some growers replant young and lessens the resemblance of cultivated Dry the roots in a well ventilated, heated 60º and 80º F, and after a few days the growers, is to start drying between 100º and 110º and when roots wilt, lower the Protection
frequently, but handle with care to avoid will need to be dried for about 6 weeks; estimated weight of dried 6-year-old root heat, as it tends to discolor the surface stored in a dry, airy, rodent proof place The market for ginseng root is limited. It is estimated that 95 percent of the ginseng collected or grown in the United States is exported to the Orient. During the 3-year period, 1969 through 1971, such exports averaged only 158,980 pounds of dried root per year. The prices paid for ginseng are high and fluctuate greatly. During the same 3-year period, export price-per-pound aver- ages were $38.12, $30.83, and $34.5 1. A recent Foreign Agriculture Service report indicated that at $12.6 million in 1975 total U.S. ginseng exports were up to 13.5 percent from the $11.1 million of 1974. Annual U.S. production at that time was estimated at 250,000 pounds, 75 percent of it cultivated and 25 percent harvested from the wild. The producer was said to reap only $20 per pound, and average yields were around 1,500 pounds per acre. If only $5 per pound is profit, and the plant is harvested only every 5 years, that amounts to only $1,500 per acre per year, much less than some of the exaggerated claims seen in advertisements in popular magazines. High initial cost of planting stock, susceptibility to diseases, long maturing period, and a limited market indicate ginseng farming should be approached conservatively. Since yields of dried root average about 1 ton per acre, 100 to 200 acres of mature ginseng could easily supply the total market for 1 year. U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 19780--256-023

Source: http://www.forestandrange.org/modules/forestfarming/docs/unit3/2201%20-%20ginseng%20intro.pdf

Broadcast application.cdr

BROADCAST SPREADER APPLICATION CHART Control Lever USING YOUR SPREADER: Settings are made by pressing down on the Calibration Indicator button and setting to the desired number on the Control Cable Calibration Indicator TO OPEN SLIDE PLATE: Push the Control Lever forward until it stops against the button. TO CLOSE SLIDE PLATE: Pull the Control Lever fully back toward MAI

Microsoft word - innogen working paper 14 - final.doc

Therapeutic advance of biopharmaceuticals . 6 Table 1. Prescrire definitions of the evaluation categories . 7 Table 2. Prescrire evaluations of the therapeutic value of biopharmaceuticals and all other drugs (Jan 1986 – June 2004) . 9 Table 3. Prescrire evaluations of biopharmaceutical indications over time .10 Drug share and prevalence rates for biopharmaceuticals .11 The social benefi

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