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TOXICOLOGY
---Latin name--
---Side effects, caution and contraindications, interactions and
intoxications---
Achillea millefolium (Yarrow,
Side eff.: G-I upset. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: Anti- coagulants and antiplatelet drugs. Lithium. May interfere with iron absorption and other minerals when taken internally. Intox.: Nausea. Vomiting. Headache. No severe intoxications are knowned.
Aconitum napellus (Aconite)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Typhoid fevers. Septic peritonitis. Paralytic states.
Intox.: Soon after ingestion (one to two hours), aconite causes a tingling and burning sensation on the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat, which is followed by numbness and constriction of the throat. Gastrointestinal disturbances are usual. Generalized weakness, convulsions and cardiac dysrhythmias may develop in the next few hours. When lethal doses have been ingested, death usually occur within six hours. If the patient survives for 24 hours the prognosis is good because the alkaloids are metabolised and eliminated rapidly. Death may occur from cardiac dysrhythmias and cardiac arrest and from respiratory depression (secondary to paralysis of the respiratory centre). Toxic dose 3-6 mg aconitine (lesser than 1 g tuber).
Actaea spicata (Cohosh or
Side eff.: G-I upset. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: Nausea, dizziness, increased pulse and severe gastrointestinal discomfort. Immediate sedative affect on the cardiac muscle tissue possibly leading to cardiac arrest.
Adhatoda vasica (Malabar Nut)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Intox.: Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
Adonis vernalis (Phesant's Eye,
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Increased effectiveness and side effects of simultaneously administrated quinidine, calcium, saluretics, laxatives, and extended therapy w. gluco-corticoids. Dose reduction in G-I irritations and inflammations. Intox.: Stomach upset, nervousness and depression. Disturbed vision. Can be fatal in very high doses.
Aesculus hippocastanum (Horse
Side eff.: Allergic reaction (ext.), anaphylactic chock is described in one case. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Anticoagulantia. Antiplatelet drugs. Antidiabetics. Lithium. Intox.: Nausea, vomiting. Abdominal pain. Nephropathy. Arrhytmia (rare). Risk for sapotoxism. Twitching, weakness, dilated pupils, vomiting, diarrhea, depression, paralysis, and stupor.
Agrimonia eupatoria (Agrimony) Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Influence the menstrual cycle. Interact.:
Anticoagulantia. Antihypertensiva or hypertensiva. Alchemilla vulgaris (Lady's
Side eff.: Ext. allergic reactions is described. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Can possibly interacts w. other sexual hormone therapy.
Alisma plantago-aquatica (Water Side eff.: G-I upset. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: As for
Plantain)
diuretics and cardiostimulants in general. Intox.: G-I irritation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, heart irregularities.
Allium sativum (Garlic)
Side eff.: G-I upset (high doses), mostly flatulence. Allergic reactions (rare). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Anticoagulants. Proteas inhibitors (e.g saquinavir)- blood level of protease inhibitors reduced by A.S. Might reduce how much INH (isoniazid) the body absorbs. NNRTIs. Intox.: Gastroenteritis.
Aloë barbadense
Side eff.: Allergic dermatosis can occur. Albuminuria. Hematuria. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Caution: Chronic use of stimulant laxatives causes the colonic tissues to get worn out over time and not be able to expel feces due to long term overstimulation. Not in inflammatory G-I states. Interact.: Interacts with diuretics, corticosteroids, cardiac glucosides and antidiabetics. Intox.: Severe gastroenteritis with ulcerations. Alcoholic extract at 100 mg/kg for 3 months toxic Altaea officinalis (Marsh Mallow) Contraind.: Not in pregnancy.
Ammi visnaga (Bishop's Weed)
Side eff.: G-I upset. Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Allergic reactions (photo-sensitivity). Contraindicated in cataract, invasive squamous-cell cancer, tuber-culosis, liver and kidney diseases, HIV infections and other autoimmune diseases.
Interact.: With similar remedies. Intox.: Nausea, dizziness, constipation, lack of appetite, headache, itching, trouble sleeping, skin sensitivity to sunlight (photo-sensitization), liver problems.
Anacyclus pyrethrum (Pellitory)
Ananas comosus (Pineapple)
Side eff.: Allergic reactions (Asteraceae family, pineapple, wheat, celery, papain, carrot, fennel, cypress- or grass -pollen). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interactions: Tetracycline. Amoxicilline. Anticoagulantia. Intox.: Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. No severe intoxications are knowned.
Andrographis paniculata (Green Side eff.: G-I upset. Longterm use: Cortisone side effects. Contraind.: Not in
Chiretta)
pregnancy and breastfeed. Intox.: Up to 100 mg andrographolides/kg gave no serious toxic effects in rats.
Anemone pulsatilla (Pasque
Side eff.: Can also cause allergic reactions Contraind.: Careful in pregnancy. Interact.: Can interact with sexualhormones therapy.
Angelica archangelica (European Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Nephritis (epitelial irritation). Ulcus
Angelica)
ventriculi. Caution: Furano coumarins can cause phototoxic dermatosis (not more than 7800 ppm ext.). Interact.: Anticoagulantia. Antihypertensives and CA-blockers. Intox.: Overstimulation of CNS and respiratory collaps due to phellandrene. Angelica archangelica has been identified as a suspected carcinogen in recent years.
Angelica sinensis (Dong Quai)
Side eff.: Allergic reactions. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Subclinical gonad hyperfunction. Angelica has a tendency to increase the sugar in the urine. Caution: Furano coumarins can cause phototoxic dermatosis. Interact.: Maybe interactions w. sexual hormone therapy (increases the effect of ovarian/testicular hormones), cardiac stimulants and digitaloids. Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs. Intox.: Low toxicity LD50=100 g concentrated extract.
Apium graveolens (Celery)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Nephritis, kidney insufficence. Intox.: Violent nausea and vomiting, arrhytmias, risk for kidney and liver damages. Abortive.
Arachis hypogaea (Peanut)
Arctium ssp. (Burdock)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Caution: Excessive use may precipitate a symptomic crisis in severely toxic conditions or where the eliminatory channels are deficient. It is recommended that dosage start cautiously, working up as appropriate. Intox.: Allergic reactions (rashes in face – rare), maybe also a side effect. Interact.: Antihyperglycemics. Immunosuppressants.
Arctostaphyllos uva ursi
Side eff.: Tinnitus. G-I upset (due to high tannin doses). Greenish urine (harm- less). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Caution: Dose reduction in kidney dysfunction. Interact.: Anticoagulantia. Intox.: (Chronic hydrochinone intoxication). Hemolytic aenemia, physical weakness, cirrhosis, white hair (pigment lost).
Arnica montana (Leopards bane) Side eff.: G-I upset. Flush. Tachycardia. Allergic reactions (ext.). Contraind.: Not
in pregnancy and breastfeed. Caution: External applications must been abled to dry, no use of tight fomentation. Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: heat in the throat, nausea, vomiting, purging, spasmodic contractions of the limbs, difficulty of respiration, and sometimes inflammation of the alimentary canal, and coma. Strong preparations should not be applied full strength, for in some instances of tender skin, or in accidents occurring after its use, an erysipelatous inflammation has followed. Even when used as a local dressing for wounds dangerous inflammation, with vesication, has occurred. Lethal dose in 70 g T. but as little as 55 g can be fatal.
Artemisia absinthium
Side eff.: Headache (overdoses). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: Anticonvulsants. Intox.: Nausea, vomiting. Restlessness. Vertigo. Tremor. Intensive headache. Epileptiform convulsions. Death due to respiratory collaps.
Artemisia vulgaris (Mugwort)
Side eff.: Dizziness. Allergy to Asteraceae and tobacco, honey and royal jelly, celery and wild carrot. Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Aspidosperma quebracho blanco Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: Psychopharmacolog.
(Aspidosperm Bark)
Intox.: Nervousness, tremor, sleeplessness, anxiety, hypertension, and tachy-cardia, nausea, vomiting. Astragalus membranaceus
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interactions: Cyclophosphamide, antivirals Atropa belladonna (Belladonna)
Side eff.: G-I upset. Dry mouth. Mictions problem. Palpitations. Accommodation disturbance, ocular. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Glaucoma. Paraplegia. Cardiac arrythmia.
Interactions: Procainamide. Phenothiazines.Quinidine. Tricyclic antidepressants.
Intox.: Abnormal thirst, dilated pupils, nausea, hallucinations, convulsions, rapid pulse, high blood pressure, coma and death. Lethal dose 200 mg atropine or more. 10-20 mg atropine is definitly toxic. Lethaldose round 4-5 g fol. belladonnae.
Avena sativa (Oat)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants.
Baptisia tinctoria (Wild Indigo)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Not in states with obvious hyperemia. Intox.: Excessive flow of viscid saliva, ulceration of the pharynx, insomnia, restlessness, and ocular disturbances. Asphyxiation through paralysis of the respiratory centers. Berberis vulgaris (European
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Hypotonia. Intox.: Vertigo. Epistaxis. Kidney irritation, possibly inflammation. Weak pulse and hypotonia. Heartrythm irregularities. Convulsions. Severe intoxications are very rare. Betula ssp. (Birch)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Risk for salicylic acid hypersensitivity using tar and risk for allergic reactions (phototoxic etc.) using tar or phenol. Intox.: Irritation (G-I, renal) for folium betulae. For phenol and tar, externally: intoxication with stupor, diarrhea, collaps, delirium, convulsions and respiratory paralysis. Undiluted phenol solution is corrosive.
Boswellia ssp. (Frankincense)
Side eff.: May include diarrhea, nausea and skin rash (rare). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Intox.: Gastroenteritis.
Bryonia alba (Bryony)
Side eff.: Over ½ g G-I upset. Ext.: Allergic reactions. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Hemorrhoids (bleeding) or intestinal ulcerations. Intox.: serious gastro-intestinal inflammation diarrhoea, vomiting, vertigo, reduction of temperature, dilatation of the pupils, cold perspiration, extremely small pulse, colic, collapse, and death.
Calendula officinalis (Pot
Marigold)
Cannabis sativa (Hemp)
Side eff.: Addictive. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Hypertension. Lungproblems (smoking esp.). Heartproblems. Epilepsy. Immune system problems. Interact.: Sedatives, benzodiazepines, CNS-depressants. Theophylline. Intox.: disturbance in the digestive tract, affects the nervous system with convulsive movements and sudden shocks, causes congestion of the brain, confused ideas. Possible death due to marasmus.
Capsella bursa pastoris
Side eff.: Decreased urination and perspiration. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Urolithiasis. Hypertonia. Intox.: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps?. No severe intoxications is described.
Capsicum frutescens (Cayenne)
Side eff.: Urticaria like rashes due to hypersensitivity, wash exposed area carefully. Contraind.: Not in the last trimester of pregnancy. Inflammatory or catarrhal G-I states. Rosacea. Not in damage skin, wounds or trauma. Interact.: Cocaine, Teophylline, ACE inhibitors. Intox.: vomiting, purging, pains in the stomach and bowels, heat and inflammation of the stomach, giddiness Carbo medicinalis (Charcoal)
Side eff.: Malabsorption in long term use. Obstipation and black stools. In very rare cases blockage of intestinal tract, regurgitation into the lungs and dehydration.
Carum carvi (Caraway)
Cassia ssp. (Senna)
Side eff.: G-I upset. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Caution: Chronic use of stimulant laxatives causes the colonic tissues to get worn out over time and not be able to expel feces due to long term overstimulation. Not in inflammatory G-I states, ileus, appendicitis etc. Interact.: Interacts with diuretics, corticosteroids, cardiac glucosides and antidiabetics.
Caulophyllum thalictroides (Blue Side eff.: Cause dermatitis on contact. Contraind.: Not in brestfeed. Used during
Cohosh)
pregnancy until the last 2 to 3 weeks before confinement. Hypertension. Not in diabetes. Intox.: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypertonia and arrhytmia. It can also cause stomach cramps, chest pain, increased increased blood sugar. When taken by the mother late in pregnancy, it can cause severe heart problems in the newborn baby. Raisen the bloodpressure. Only a couple of weeks treatment is recommended.
Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Ipecac)
Side eff.: Nausea, vomiting, sialorrhea, gastroenteritis (higher doses). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: Vomiting, cough, bronchorrhea, anxiety, sneezings, hemoptysis, lower pulse, fatigue, sweatings, violent gastroenteritis, pains, oedema, hypotonia, tachycardia, dyspnoea, death due to respiratory collaps.
Ceratonia siliqua (John's Bread)
Contraind.: Diabetes (high content of sugar). Caution: Use enough water to avoid obstruction.
Certraria islandica (Icelandic
Contraind.: Pregnancy. Gastroduodenal ulcers due to mucosa irritating property. Intox.: Large doses can cause nausea and diarrhea.
Chelidonium majus (Greater
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Acute hepatitis. Severe hypertension. Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. A burning sensation in mouth and throat. Abdominal pains. Reflex debility. Nervsystem paralysis. Severe intoxications in adult is rare. Sanguinarine is particularly toxic with a lethal dose of only 18 mg per kg body weight. Despite this acute toxicity, sanguinarine is present in such small quantities that the LD50 dose would require >50g of raw herb to be ingested.
Chenopodium ambrosaides
Side eff.: Nausea, vomiting and fatigue, parestesia in hands and feets, more rare amblyopia. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: Coma somnolentus. Tachycardia. Convulsions. Albuminuria. An overdose of the oil can result in poisoning and death. A 1 year old baby given a dose of 4 drops 3 times per day for 2 days, died.
Cimicifuga racemosa (Black
Side eff.: G-I upset. Metrorraghia in menopausal. Contraind.: Caution in cancer (breast, ovarian, uterin). Liverdiseases. Kidneytransplant. Protein S deficiancy. Endometriosis. Uterine fibroids. Caution: Hypersensitivity in salicylic acid. Interact.: Other sexual hormones therapy. Antihypertensiva. Atorvastatin. Cisplatin. Might harm the liver, not with other drugs that can harm the liver. Intox.: 5 g drug or more: Vertigo, impaired vision, dilatation of the pupils, nausea, vomiting, and a reduction of the circulation, delirium.
Cinchona ssp. (Peruvian Bark)
Side eff.: Sussurus aurium. Hearing problems. Photophobia. Eyesight problems. Depression. Fatigue. Dyspepsia. Nausea and vertigo (quinidine). Caution: Hypersensitivity. Interact.: Increase effect of anticoagulants. Digitalis and digitaloids (quinidine). Intox.: Death in 8 to 10 g quinine: Collaps, delirium, confusion, convulsions. Quinidine: Diastolic AV-block. Chronic: Mental disorders.
Cinnamomum camphora (Camph) Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Intox.: Oesophageal and gastric
pain, vomiting, slow and enfeebled and subsequently intermittent pulse, dizziness, drowsiness, dimness of sight, pallid, cold skin, muscular weakness, cyanosis, spasms, muscular rigidity, and convulsions. Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Antidiabetics. Intox.: Nausea, vomiting, Citrus limon (Lemon)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy (except juice). Not in gastritis (juice and citric acid). Citrus allergy. Interact.: Citric acid = anticoagulant Intox.: Volatile oil – liver- and kidney damages. Other: N/a. Claviceps purpurea (Ergot)
Side eff.: Ergotamine: Nausea, peripheral ischemia. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy or breastfeed. Ergotamine – not in hypertonia. Intox.: Lethal dose 5-10 g fresh sclerotium. Abdominal pains. Possible kidney injuries. Uterine hemorrhagia. Nausea. Vomiting. Peripheral ischemia. Risk for thrombosis and gangraine (chronic). Angina pectoris (not so common). Anxiety. Hypertension. Confusion. Excitement. Hallucinations. Cramps. Coma. Cardiac oedema. Hypo- or hyper-termia.
Coffea arabica
Side eff.: Insomnia, irritability, nervousness, tremor, headache, palpitations, confusion (high doses). Contraind.: Coffeine – not in breastfeed. Interact.: Coffeine: Ephedrine, Adenosid, Quinolone antibiotics, Cimetidine, Clozapine, Dipyridamole, Disulfiram, Estrogens, Lithium, Fluvoxamine, MAOIs, Stimulant drugs, Theophylline. Theophylline can interact with other similar substances and digitalis, digitaloids.
Intox.: Theophylline mainly: Gastroenteritis. Nausea. Vomiting. Abdominal pains. All alkaloids have low toxicity.
Colchicum autumnale (Meadow
Side eff.: Abdominal pains and diarrhea, nausea and vomiting – high (max)doses. Bone marrow depression, with aplastic aenemia, with agranulocytosis or with thrombocytopenia. Peripheral neuritis, purpura, myopathy, loss of hair, and reversible azoospermia. Dermatoses. Teratogenic. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Hypertension. Colchicine is inhibited by acidyfing agents and potentiated by alkalinizing. Colchicine can increase sensitivity to CNS-depressants. Response to sympathomimetics may be enhanced by colchicine. Intox.: Bilious vomiting, colic, tenesmus, and bloody mucoid evacuations painful cramps of the muscles and feet, collapse, decreased circulation, and death, probably from cardiac syncope.
Commiphora myrrha (Myrrh)
Side eff.: Allergenic (possible). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Diabetes. Fever. Uterine bleeding. Intox.: More than 2-4 g can cause kidney irritation and heart rate changes. Nausea and vomiting. Colic and flatulence.
Conium maculatum (Poison
Side eff.: Dry throat. Fatigue. G-I upset. Eyesight problems. Muscular weakness. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: Other musculatory relaxant and other sedatives, analgetics and alcohol. Intox.: Dilated pupils, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, trembling, slow pulse, respiratory failure, coma and death.
Convallaria majalis (Lily Of The Side eff.: G-I upset. Interact.: Increased effectiveness and side effects of
Valley)
simultaneously administrated quinidine, calcium, saluretics, laxatives, and extended therapy w. gluco-corticoids. Digitalis and other digitaloids.
Intox.: Large amounts can cause arrhytmia, mental confusion, circulatory collapse, and death.
Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: Resembling alcohol intoxication. Damages
on kidney and liver (volatile oil in high doses).
Crataegus ssp. (Hawthorn,
Side eff.: Dermatitis (hands – rare). G-I upset. Sweating. Fatigue. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Bradychardia. Interact.: Digitalis, digitaloids (decreased effect with 50%). Betareceptor blockers. Calcium channel blockers. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (e.g viagra). Nitrates. Intox.: Nausea. Vomiting. Bradychardia. Respiratory depression, cardiac arrest or respiratory collaps. Severe intoxication only in injections of extract.
Crocus sativus (Saffron)
Side eff.: Dizziness, numbness. Anxiety. Yellow appearence of skin, eyes and mucous membranes (not dangerous). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Bipolar disorder. Intox.: Approx. 10 g drug is lethal. Nausea. Vomiting. Abdominal pains. Hemorrhagia. Vertigo. Psychoneurotic depression. Confusion. Death due to respiratory collaps.
Cucurbita pepo (Pumpkin)
Side eff.: Ejaculation problems in some men (rare). Containd.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: Can maybe interact with other sexual hormone therapy. Lithium. Intox.: G-I disorders.
Curcuma longa (Turmeric)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Discolor teeth, urine and feces (harmless). Interakt.: Medication that slow blood clotting (salicylates, clopidogrel, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, dalteparin, enoxaparin, heparin, warfarin, dicoumarol etc.). Intox.: N/a, curcumine have low toxicity.
Cynara scolymus (Artichoke)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: No intoxication is knowned although cyanopicrine is both neuro- and cytotoxic.
Cytisus scoparius (Broom)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Hypertonia. Interact.: Digitalis, digitaloids and other cardiac stimulants. Intox.: Circulatory collaps. Tachycardia (strong). Ileus due to intestinal paralysis. Severe intoxications in adults are rare but sparteine have different effects on different individuals. Death can occur with greater than Daphne mezerum (Mezereon)
Side eff.: N/a. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Acute or severe kidney disorders. Liver dysfunction. Interact.: Similar agents. Intox.: Dry and burning sensation in mouth and throat. (Bloody) diarrhea. Sialorrhea. Vertigo. Nausea. Vomiting. Abdomninal pains. Diures (strong). Nephritis is possible. Excitement. Hypertermia. Very quick pulse. Respiratory difficulties. Convulsions. Unconciousness and death.
Datura stramonium (Thorn Apple) Side eff.: G-I upset. Accommodation disturbance, ocular.
Interactions: Procainamide. Phenothiazines.Quinidine. Tricyclic antidepressants. Contraind.: Cardiac arryhtmias. Glaucoma.
Intox.: Abnormal thirst, dilated pupils, nausea, hallucinations, convulsions, rapid pulse, high blood pressure, coma.
Daucus carota (Wild Carrot)
Side eff.: Allergic reactions. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: CA-blockers. Chronic kidney dysfunction. Clinical liver disorders. Intox.: N/a.
Digitalis lanata/purpurea
Side eff.: Same as for intox. Contraind.: Simple compensatory hypertrophy, aortic stenosis, fatty or other degenerations of the heart muscle, and atheromatous or other structural changes in the arteries. As a rule it should not be employed in the heart affections of old age, or when dilatation is excessive, and particularly when the flabby state of the heart muscle is due to degenerative changes. Interact.: Increased effectiveness and side effects of simultaneously administrated quinidine, calcium, saluretics, laxatives, and extended therapy w. gluco-corticoids. Digitaloids. Intox.: 2-3 g folium digitalis purpureae can be lethal. Higher risk for intoxication in aged or hypokaliaemia, children. Cachexia. Nausea. Diarrhea. Headache. Eyesight problems (diplopia).
Drosera rotundifolia (Sundew)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. TBC. Severe hypertonia. Intox.: Cramps (intoxication among sheeps).
Dryopteris filix mas (Male Fern)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. No use of castor oil, the oil potensifies the toxic floroglucinole derivates. Ulcus ventriculi. Heartdiseases. Intox.: Lethal dose can be as little as 45 g fluid extr. Vomiting, purging, headache, dizziness, dyspnoea, cold perspiration, cyanosis, disordered intellect, profound stupor, and convulsions are among its effects. In some cases amblyopia and permanent amaurosis have occurred, though the vision is generally restored. Echinacea angustifolia/purpurea Side eff.: Allergic reactions. Slight hyperemia. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Not
(alt. Red Sunflower)
in progressive diseases (TBC, diabetes mellitus and MS). Interact.: Potensifies the effects of antibiotics. Amiodarone, anabolic steroids, ketoconazole, methotrexate (May slow metabolism of these drugs and increase risk of hepatotoxicity if taken for > 8 wk). Immunosuppressants (e.g cyclosporine) May lessen immuno-suppressive effects via T-cell stimulation. Note: Drug contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (=hepatotoxic) but only unsaturated forms that are harmless. Intox.: Nausea and vomiting. Low toxicity.
Elettaria cardamomum
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Intox.: Liver- and kidney damages Eleutherococcus senticosus
Side eff.: Hyperactivity (rare). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Hypertension (carefulness). Interact.: Alcohol. Digitalis. Lithium. Anticoagulants and antiplatelets drugs. Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2)-substrates. Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9)-substrates. Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6)-substrates. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)-substrates Intox.: N/a.
Elytrigia repens (Quick Grass)
Ephedra ssp.
Side eff.: High doses: Nervousness and anxiety, insomnia, in really high doses tachyarrythmia. Contraind.: Not in breastfeed. Tyreotoxicosis. Hypertonia. disturbance of heart rythm. Interact.: Cardiac glucosides or halothane: Guanethidine. MAO-inhibitors. Secale and ergot derivates. Dexamethasone. Stimulants. QT-interval prolonging drugs. Oxytocin. Anticonvulsants. Antidiabetica. Intox.: Severe hypertension and possibly respiratory collaps. Severe intoxications in adults are rare.
Equisetum arvense (Horsetail)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: Lithium. Intox.: Contains enzyme thiaminase that breaks down the vitamin thiamine. Contains small amounts of nicotine and can cause nicotine poisining in people that not use tobacco products.
Erythroxylum coca (Coca)
Side eff.: Insomnia. Anorexia. Addiction. Contraind. (caution): Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Hypertonia. Heartdiseases. Asthma. Hysteria and chorea. Plasma pseudocholinesterase deficiency. History of strokes or are at risk for strokes. Not in driving or use machine. Interact.: N/a. Intox.: Feverishness, increased heat of the surface, palpitation, photopsy, headache, vertigo, increased frequency of the pulse, a peculiar roaring tinnitus. Cold and moist skin. Mydriasis. Hallucinations and delirium. Death due to cardiac arrest or respiratory collapse. Eucalyptus globulus (Fever Tree) Side eff.: Very few people have developed an allergy to eucalyptus oil. Contra-
ind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Nephrotic desquamation. Intox.: drowsiness and lack of power over the limbs. The chief eliminatory organs appear to be the lungs and kidneys (severe damages in use of volatile oil or eucalyptol). Muscular weakness, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea have been noted. Should be used only infrequently since it is difficult to eliminate through the kidneys Euphrasia stricta (Eyebright)
Side eff.: Allergic reactions (ext.). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Intox.: Nausea and vomiting, cramps. Confusion. Headache. Tearing. Itching. Redness. Vision problems. Sneezing. Tootache. Constipation. Insomnia. Sweating. (Mostly indicated with overdosing tincture).
Ferula asafoetida (Asafoetida,
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Inflammatory states. Bleeding disorder. High or low bloodpressure. Intestine infection or condition. History of convulsions or epilepsy. Interact.: Anti-coagulantia. Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: Nausea and vomiting. Alcohollike intoxication with muscular spasms. Burning during urination. Swollen lips. Dizziness. It oxidizes fetal hemoglobin but not adult, not for small children.
Filipendula ulmaria (Meadow
Radix spiraeae: Fatigue and dizziness as side effect. ASA: Side eff.: Salicylic acid hypersensitivity. Contraind.: Inflammatory G-I states. Heartfailure. Hemophilia. Thrombo-cytopenia. Cirrhosis. Uremia. Severe kidney dysfunction. Interact.: Anticoagulantia. Nicotinic acid. Acetazolamide. Phenytoine. Metrotrexate. Sulfonureids. Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants (radix). Intox.: Hemorrhagia.
The same for Filipendula, Populus balsamifera, Populus tremula, Primula and Salix.
Side eff.: Belching and halitosis, flatulence. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Hemophilia (heridetarius). Some liverdiseases. Allergy to fish/seafood. Bipolar disorder. Implantable defibrillator. Interact.: Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs. Intox.: Osteoporosis (high doses of PUFA?).
Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: Volatile oil in high doses: Liver- and kidney damages.
Fucus vesiculosus (Bladderwrack) Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Caution: Can influence thyroidea, not in iodine-
Fumaria officinalis (Fumitory)
Side eff.: Dizziness. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: Antihypertensiva. Intox.: Severe diarrhea. Muscular spasms. Rare: Respiratory paralysis.
Galega officinalis (Goat's Rue)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: Antihyperglycemics. Intox.: Toxic dose 0,8 g drug/kg and day. Coughs, respiratory complaints and sialorrhea.
Galium ssp. (Cleavers)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Anticoagulantia. Intox.: N/a.
Gelsemium sempervirens (Yellow Side eff.: Dizziness. Lachrimation. G-I upset. Mydriasis. Headache. Sweating.
Jasmine)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Glaucoma. Fever diseases w. Heartfailure, degenerative heartdiseases. Interact.: Alcohol. Most certainly also other CNS-depressives. Intox.: Toxic dose ~ 4 g fluid extr. Palpebral relaxation, disturbance of the ocular muscles, the dropping of the lower jaw, and the profound prostration and muscular relaxation. The pupil dilates, there is drooping of the eyelids (ptosis), and double vision (diplopia) The pulse is slowed to 30 or 40 beats, and there is a marked decrease in temperature death due to asphyxia Gentiana lutea (Yellow Gentian
Side eff.: Obstipation (combined w. iron preparations). Intox.: Nausea and Ginkgo biloba
Side eff.: G-I upset. Headache. Allergic reactions (crude extracts). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: Anticoagulantia. Tricyclic anti-depressives and Hypericum. MAOIs. Antiplatelet drugs. Anticonvulsants (e.g phenytoin) – may reduce anti-convulsant effects. Intox.: N/a.
Glechoma hederacea (Ground Ivy) Contraind.: Not in pregnancy.
Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liqourice)
Side eff.: Cortisone side effects (hypertension and oedema). Potassium loss due to other drugs, e.g thiazide diuretic, can be increased. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed.
Guaiacum officinale (Guaiac)
Side eff.: Large doses act as a cathartic. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breast feed. G-I ulcerations. Intox.: Gastroenteritis with nausea, vomiting and violent diarrhea. Congestive headache. Hamamelis virginiana (alt. Witch Side eff.: G-I upset. Interakt.: Medication that slow blood clotting (salicylates,
Hazel)
clopidogrel, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, dalteparin, enoxaparin, heparin, warfarin, dicoumarol etc.). Intox.: Large doses can cause liver problems.
Harpagophytum procumbens
Side eff.: G-I upset. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Ulcus ventriculi et duodeni. Interact.: H2-blockers. Warfarin. Dicoumarin. Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19)-substrates. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)-substrates. Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2)-substrates. Intox.: Hemorrhagia. Strong irritation of ventriculi mucous membranes.
Hedera helix (Ivy)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Intox.: Nausea and vomiting. Diarrhea. Heartrythm irregularities (very high doses).
Helianthus annuus (Sunflower)
Side eff.: Allergic reactions. Containd.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Intox.: N/a.
Herniaria glabra (Rupturewort)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: N/a, possibly sapotoxism.
Hippophaë rhamnoides (Sallow
Side eff.: G-I upset (both juice and oil). Interact.: Anticoagulantia. Remedies in thyroidea disorders (levaxin). Intox.: N/a.
Humulus lupulus (Hops)
Side eff.: Menstrual irregularities. Dizziness. Mildly addictive. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Depression. Interact.: Alcohol and CNS-depressants. Other sexual hormone therapy.
Hydnocarpus odorata
Side eff.: Nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pains. Rash. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Intox.: Gastroenteritis with violent abdomninal pain, colic, violent vomiting. Convulsive state. Death due to respiratory collaps in high overdoses.
Hydrastis canadense (Golden Seal) Side eff.: G-I upset. Long-term use may weaken the bacterial flora of the colon.
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Hypotonia. Caution: Do not use if there is a condition of emaciation, neurasthenia, vertigo, or chronic debility. Interact.: Digitalis. Cytochrome P450 2D6(CYP2D6)-substrates. Cytochrome P450 3A4(CYP3A4)-substrates. P-Glycoprotein substrates (etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, ketoconazole, itraconazole, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, cim-etidine, ranitidine, diltiazem, verpamil, corticosteroids, erythromycin, cisapride, fexofenadine, cyclosporine, loperamide, quinidine). Intox.: Ulcerations and inflammation of mucous tissue. Convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
Hyoscyamus niger (Henbane)
Side eff.: G-I upset. Accommodation disturbance, ocular. Contraind.: Cardiac arryhtmias. Glaucoma. Interact.: Procainamide. Phenothiazines. Quinidine. Tricyclic antidepressants. Intox.: Abnormal thirst, dilated pupils, nausea, hallucinations, convulsions, rapid pulse, high blood pressure, coma.
Hypericum ssp. (S:t John's Wort) Side eff.: Light dermatitis (doses over 30 mg hypericine is definately phototoxic).
Dermatitis is reversible and are mostly affected blonde or redhaired people. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Intake of thyramine (certain cheeses and red vines = mao-inhibiting effect). Salicylic acid hypersensitivity. Interact.: Other antidepressants. Ephedrine. Amphetamine. Tetracyclines. Chlorpromazine. Indinavir. Other antiretroviral substances. Intox.: N/a.
Iris versicolor (Blue Flag)
Side eff.: Salicylic acid hypersensitivity. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: Nausea. Abdomninal pains. Vomiting. Diarrhea. Headache. Kidney irritating states. Arrhytmias.
Juniperus communis (Juniper)
Side eff.: Allergic reactions (ext.). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Nephros. Nephritis (active). Can enhance continuing hypoglycemic treatment. Interact.: Diuretics. Antihypertensives. May interfere with iron absorption and other minerals when taken internally. Intox.: Damages on kidneys.
Lactobacillus acidophilus
Lactuca virosa (Wild Lettuce)
Side eff.: Dizziness. G-I upset. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Hypotonia. Diabetes (changing of insuline levels). Interact.: Alcohol. Cardio vascular remedies. Sedatives and analgetics. Intox.: Violent irritation of mucous membranes in mouth, oesophagus and gastrointestinal with nausea, vomiting and violent abdomninal pains and colic. Nervousness. Convulsive state. Collaps. Respiratory paralysis. Lethal intoxications in adults are rare.
Larix decidua (European Larch)
Side eff.: Hypersensitivity (ext.). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: Nausea and vomiting. Damages on liver and kidneys.
Lavandula angustifolia (Lavender) Side eff.: Hypersensitivity (ext.). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Chloral
hydrate. Barbiturates. CNS-depressants. Intox.: Damages on liver and kidneys.
Ledum palustre (Marsh Tea)
Side eff.: G-I upset. Renal irritation. Sweatings.Dizziness. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy or breastfeed. Acute nephropathy. Kidney dysfunction. Liver dysfunction. Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: Locally irritating on skin and mucous membranes. Diarrhea. Vomiting after nausea. Colic. Alcohollike intoxication and risk for permanent damages on liver and most kidney. (Risk for chronic hydrochinone poisining in very high overdoses).
Lentinula edodes (Shittake)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Anticoagulantia. Hemophilia. Intox.: Light dermatitis. Eosinophilia. G-I upset. Low toxicity.
Leonurus cardiaca (Motherwort)
Side eff.: Dizziness. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy or breastfeed. Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: N/a.
Linaria vulgaris (Toadflax)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy or breastfeed. Intox.: N/a, possibly arrhytmias.
Linum usitatissimum (Linseed)
If the kerns are chrused cyanogenic acid is yield under hydrolysis: approx. 100 g kern kan contains as much as 50 ml HCN; lethaldose is 50-60 mg in adults and 6-10 mg in children.
Lobelia inflata (Indian Tobacco)
Side eff.: Nausea. Caution in aged and children. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Hypertonia. Dyspnoea in hearthypertrophy, fatty heart, hydro-pericardium with weak heart with valvular insufficence. Interact.: Similar agents. Intox.: Nausea. Vomiting. Diarrhea. Spastic cough. Sneezings. Severe rapid hypertension and arrhytmias. Lethal intoxications in adults are not that common.
Lycopodium clavatum (Club
Side eff.: Hypersensitivity (ext.). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Pollen allergy. Intox.: Nausea and vomiting, spastic states. No severe intoxications are knowned.
Malva spp. (Mallow)
Marrubium vulgare (Horehound) Side eff.: Possible is aldosterone side effects. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Acute
Matricaria recutita (German
Side eff.: Hypersensitivity (internal and external). Caution: Cases of anaphylactic chock is described. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breast feed. Interact.: Anticoagulants. Sedatives and benzodiazepines and CNS-depressants. Contraceptive drugs and estrogens. Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates. Intox.: Violent gastroenteritis with abdominal pains and spasms. Severe intoxications is not knowned.
Medicago sativa (Blue Lucerne,
Side eff.: Long term use can cause thrombocyts and leucocyts debilities. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Diabetes. Hormone sensitive conditions (e.g breastcancer) or autoimmune diseases (SLE, MS, RA). Aggravate lupus and other auto-immune disorders. Caution: Recent reports suggest that drug (or the canavanine therein, especially in the seeds), may be associated with lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus), causing recurrence in patients in which the disease had become dormant. Interact.: Anticoagulantia. Contraceptive drugs or estrogen. Immunosuppressants (e.g cyclosporine, glucocorticoids). Photosensitizing drugs (e.g psoralen, amitryptiline etc.). Cytochrome P450 ()-substrates. Intox.: Intake (of 120 g drug): Flatulence. Diarrhea. Anorexia. Note: Seeds contains the toxic protein canavanine that can induce SLE.
Melilotus ssp. (Sweetclover)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Caution: If the drug get mouldy or rutten it yields dicoumarol.Coumarin: May cause chromsomal damage; Intoxication: narcotic, liver damages and risk for primary liver cancer, nausea, vomiting, vertigo and dizziness. Dicoumarol: intoxication = hemorrhagia.
Melissa officinalis (Balm)
Side eff.: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness and wheezing. Children: Some information suggests that M.O might be safe when taken by children under age 12 for up to one month. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: High doses of volatile oil: Kidney and liver damages.
Mentha x piperita (Peppermint)
Side eff.: Heartburns (in laryngitis). Ext. Skinirritation. Menthol-hypersensitivity (dangerous for small children, can cause oesophageal obstruction). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy (last trimester). Intox.: (Often vol. oil). Severe gastroenteritis with alcohollike intoxication and ague. Risk for liver damages.
Menyanthes trifoliata (Bugbean)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Colitis. Diarrhea. Dysenteria. Intox.: Diarrhea, gripping pain, nausea and vomiting.
Myrica gale (Bog Myrtle)
Side eff.: Allergic reactions. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Kidney dysfunction. Active, inflammatory state (carefulness). Interact.: Anticholinergics. Intox.: Nausea and vomiting. Alcohollike intoxication with risk for liver- and kidney damages.
Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: 7,5 g drug or more: Nausea and vomiting. Dry mouth and throat. Hallucinations. Euphoria. Vertigo. Palpitations. Convulsions. Death due to respiratory collaps. Risk for permanent damages on liver and kidneys.
Nepeta cataria (Catmint)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: N/a.
Nuphar pumilum (Least Water
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: N/a. Intox.: CNS- depressant, heavy overdoses can cause respiratory paralysis.
Oenothera biennis (Evening
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Diabetes mellitus (carefulness). Non diagnosted temporal lobal epilepsia (promotes seizure). Schizophrenia. Interact.: Anti-epileptica (phentiazine). Intox.: G-I upset.
Paeonia officinalis (Peony)
Side eff.: Dizziness. G-I upset. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Phenytoin. Anticoagulantia and anti-platelet drugs. Intox.: Nausea, vomiting, severe diarrhea, muscular cramps. Severe intoxications is not knowned.
Panax ginseng (Chinese Ginseng) Side eff.: Long term use: G-I upset. Diarrhea. Skinirritation. Side effect frequence
is 4-5%. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Insomnia (not to be taken in evening). Autoimmune diseases. Children under 12 years of age. Interact.: MAO-inhibitors (can cause headache, tremors, and manic episodes), anti-hyperglycemic drugs (e.g glipizide), estrogens (potensified effect). May increase digoxin levels. Alcohol. Caffeine. Stimulants. Furosemide. Immunosuppressants. Intox.: Heavy doses: Insomnia and hypertension. Low toxicity.
Papaver rhoeas (Rd Poppy, Corn Side eff.: Dizziness. Fatigue. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy or breastfeed.
Poppy)
Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: G-I upset. Nervousness. Mydriasis. Arrhytmias. No severe intoxications are knowned.
Papaver somniferum (White
Side eff.: Nausea and vomiting. Severe obstipation. Hypotonia. Dizziness. Fatigue. Addictive. Caution: Dose reduction for children, severe kidney dysfunction. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Hypotonia. Codeine: Biliary complaints. Interact.: Alcohol and other CNS-depressants. Intox.: Codeine and papaverine is slightly toxic. Dizziness and decreased mental awareness. Respiratory complaints. Miosis. Pale and moist skin. Reflex diminishes and disappears eventually. Respiratory block. Nausea, vomiting and unconciousness. Circulatory influence and pulmonary oedema. Death in some over 200 mg morphine.
Paris quadrifolia (Herb Paris)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Diabetes mellitus (ecdysterone influence insuline levels). Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: Excitability, nervous twitching and an increased pulse. Painful urination and bowel movements, aswell as dilated pupils. Death due to respiratory collaps.
Passiflora incarnata
Side eff.: Dizziness. Hypersensitivity. Irregular muscle action and coordination. Inflamed bloodvessels. Nausea. Drowsiness. Rapid heart rate and in one case abnormal heart rythm. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: MAO-inhibitor (potensified effect). Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: CNS-depressant. Lethargy. Hypotonia. Convulsions. Paralysis. Severe intoxications is rare.
Petroselinum crispum (Parsley)
Side eff.: Abortive (volatile oil). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Kidney dys-function. Intox.: Renal irritation. Large doses can cause damages on kidney and liver.
Physostigma venenosum
Side eff.: Sialorrhea. Sweatings. Diarrhea. Locally: Allergic reactions. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Bradychardia. Hypertonia. Myotonia. Intox.: Depressing influence, as manifested by a slight tremor, followed by paralysis of the limbs, slow and irregular respiration, with stertor, muscular twitchings, more or less complete loss of sensation, contraction of the pupils, frothy mucus escapes from the mouth, and finally death.
Phytolacca americana (Poke Root) Side eff.: Nausea. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Hypertonia.
Intox.: Stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hard breathing, weakness, spasms, convulsions and death. Doses over 1 g is emetic. Around 2 g is toxic and 10 g fresh root can be lethal.
Pilocarpus jaborandi (Jaborandi) Side eff.: Same as in intoxication. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed.
Intox.: Overfunction in nervus vagus. Diaphores. Diures. Sialorrhea. Diarrhea. Much as intoxication by Physostigma.
Pimpinella anisum (Anise)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: Toxic dose of volatile oil is between 1 and 5 ml. Oedema. Liverdamage.
Pinus silvestris (Common Pine)
Side eff.: Hypersensitivity (common = colophonium allergy). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy (int.). Asthma. Dermatosis.
Plantago ssp. (Plantain)
Side eff.: Allergy (due to allantoin). Contraind.: Digitalis and digitaloids; coumarin derivates (reduced uptake). Intox.: N/a.
Platycodon grandiflorum (Balloon Side eff.: Dizziness and fatigue. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed.
flower)
Interact.: Most certainly with other sedatives and analgetics. Intox.: Nausea and vomiting. Lethargy. Coordination problems. Alcohollike intoxication. Possible sapotoxism. Lethaldoses decoctum platycodi 24 g/kg in mice and 420-800 mg platycodine p.o rat.
Podophyllum peltatum (May
Side eff.: G-I upset. Dizziness. Headache. Fever. Spasm. Kidney problems.Teratogenic. Caution: Contact with skin should not exceed six hours. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Chronic use of stimulant laxatives causes the colonic tissues to get worn out over time and not be able to expel feces due to long term overstimulation. Not in inflammatory G-I states. Low bloodpressure. Interact.: Interacts with diuretics, cardiac glucosides and antidiabetics.
Intox.: Severe prolonged gastro-intestinal irritation and inflammation, death due to respiratory paralysis within 24 h. Toxic dose of podophylline is 0,3-1 g.
Polygonum aviculare (Knotgrass) Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: N/a.
Populus balsamifera (Balsam
SEE Filipendula. This drug also interacts with antihypertensives. Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants.
Populus tremula (Quacken Aspen) SEE Filipendula. This drug may also interacts with sexual hormone therapy.
Potentilla anserina (Silverweed)
Side eff.: G-I upset. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Caution: Long term use can cause chronic liver impairment. Intox.: N/a.
Potentilla erecta (Tormentil)
Contraind.: Not in peptic ulcers and widely spread wounds. Interact.: Can inhibits the uptake of iron and alkaloids. Intox.: G-I upset.
Primula veris (Primerose)
Propolis
Side eff.: See intox. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy (last trimester). Pollen allergy. Salicylic acid hypersensitivity. Intox.: Allergic reactions (skin).
Prunella vulgaris (Self-Heal)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Anticoagulantia. Intox.: N/a.
Pyrola ssp. (Self-Heal)
Side eff.: Salicylic acid hypersensitivity. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: Long term use can cause chronic hydrochinone poisining (See Arctostaphyllos).
Quercetin
Side eff.: Headache. Tingling of the arms and legs. Contraind.: Carefulness in pregnancy. Intox.: Very high doses might cause kidney damage. 500 mg x 2 seems to be harmless in any case.
Quercus robur (Oak)
Rauvolfia serpentina
Side eff.: Tiredness. Depression. Rhinitis. Impotence. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Depressive states. Hypotonia. Gastric or intestinal ulcers. In ECT. In pheochromocytoma. Interact.: Digitalis, digitaloids. Barbiturates. Levodopa. Sympatho-mimetics. Intox.: Depression, abdomninal pain, G-I ulcers, fluidretention, extrapyramidal inbalances. Flush. Miosis. Hypotonia. Bradychardia. Hypotermia. Tachycardia. Vertigo. Stupor. Tremor. Coma. Toxic dose of reserpine is between 25 and 250 mg, teratogenic dose is in very small doses. LD50=10 mg reserpine/kg bodyweight (rat/rab).
Rhamnus frangula (Alder
Side eff.: G-I upset. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Chronic use of stimulant laxatives causes the colonic tissues to get worn out over time and not be able to expel feces due to long term overstimulation. Not in inflammatory G-I states. Interact.: Diuretics, corticosteroids, cardiac glucosides and antidiabetics.
Rheum palmatum (China
Side eff.: G-I upset. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Chronic use of stimulant laxatives causes the colonic tissues to get worn out over time and not be able to expel feces due to long term overstimulation. Not in inflammatory G-I states. Interact.: Diuretics, corticosteroids, cardiac glucosides and antidiabetics.
Intox.: Burning and irritation of the mouth and tongue. May be fatal if the tongue and throat swell blocking air passage. Other symptoms include nausea and vomiting.
Rhodiola rosea ( Roserod, Arctic
Side eff.: Salicylic acid hypsensitivity. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Maybe interacting with MAO-inhibitors.
Ricinus communis (Castor Oil
Side eff.: G-I upset. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Chronic use of stimulant laxatives causes the colonic tissues to get worn out over time and not be able to expel feces due to long term overstimulation. Not in inflammatory G-I states. Interact.: Diuretics, corticosteroids, cardiac glucosides and antidiabetics.
Rosa cannina (Briar Rose)
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) Side eff.: Allergic reactions locally. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: Volatile
Rubia tinctoria (Madder)
Side eff.: Pinkish urine (harmless). Intox.: N/a.
Rumex crispus (Yellow dock)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Lithiasis. Severe nephropathy. Intox.: Nausea, vomiting, risk for lithiasis. Children are much more sensitive.
Ruta graveolens (Rue)
Side eff.: Light dermatitis (furano coumarins). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: Phototoxic and mutagenic effects, liver and kidney damage (furano coumarins).
Saccharomyces cerevisia (Brewer's Side eff.: Belching, flatulence and mild colic. Interact.: MAO-inhibitor.
Yeast)
Salix ssp. (Willow)
Salvia officinalis (Sage)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy or breastfeed. Epilepsia. Schizophrenia. Intox.: Arrhytmias. Surges. Cramps and vertigo. Parestesia. Intensive headahce. Epileptic convulsions. Death due to respiratory paralysis.
Lethaldose for thujon is 30 mg/kg bodyweight and toxic symtoms in 15 g drug has occur.
Sambucus nigra (Elder)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Immunosuppressant. Intox.: N/a.
Schizandra chinensis
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Antihyperglycemics. Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9 substrates. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates. Tacrolimus. Intox.: N/a.
Scilla maritima (Squill)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: Increased effectiveness and side effects of simultaneously administrated quinidine, calcium, saluretics, laxatives, and extended therapy w. Gluco-corticoids. Intox.: Sialorrhea. Bronchorrhea. Intensive diures. Nausea and vomiting. Cardial pains. Nervousness. Dyspnoea. Pleuritis. Severe intoxications among adults are very rare.
Scuttelaria galericulata (European Side eff.: Dizziness. Can aenesthetize lips, fingers and toes. Contraind.: Not in
Scullcap)
pregnancy or breastfeed. Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: Confusion. Nervousness. 'Heavy' feeling in the forehead. Convulsions. Severe intoxications are not knowned.
Sempervivum tectorum (Common Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: G-I upset with nausea and vomiting.
Houseleek)
Sepia officinalis (Cuttlefish)
Intox.: G-I upset. Renal complaints.
Serenoa serrulata (Saw Palmetto) Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Maybe interactions in other sexual
Silybum marianum (Milk Thistle) Side eff.: Laxative side effect. Rare is nausea, diarrhea, indigestion, bloating, loss
of appetite. Allergic reactions. Interact.: May interfere with metabolizing enzymes, lowering blood levels of indinavir. May intensify effect of antihyperglycemic drugs. Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates. Glucu-ronidated Drugs. Estrogens. Intox.: Oral doses of silymarin up to 2,1 g per day is considered safe and tolerated.
Solanum dulcamara (Bittersweet) Side eff.: Infertility (?). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.:
Other anticholinerg and parasympathomimetic drugs. Intox.: Violent nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (with blood) paralyzing influence upon the respiratory nervous system, cause increased but enfeebled cardiac action, tetanic spasms death due to respiratory collaps Solidago virgaurea (Golden Rod) Side eff.: Allergic reactions (internal, external). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and
Sorbus aucuparia (Rowan)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. G-I ulceration. Nephrolithiasis. Intox.: Violent gastroenteritis with nausea and vomiting. Abdomninal pains, colic and peristent diarrhea. Risk for nephrolithiasis. Kidney irritation.
Strophanthus gratus
Side eff.: Diarrhea. Contraindic.: Advanced muscular degeneration, in pronounced mechanical defects of the heart, and in fully and over-compensated hearts. Interact.: Increased effectiveness and side effects of simultaneously administrated quinidine, calcium, saluretics, laxatives, and extended therapy w. gluco-corticoids. Intox.: Gastro-intestinal irritation with vomiting and diarrhoea muscular dis-orders, tetanic paralysis.
Strychnos nux vomica (Strychnine, Contraind.: Not in pregnancy or breastfeed. Recent states of paralysis. Myotonia.
Dog Buttons)
Intox.: stiffness, weariness, pain or rending in the limbs, violent tetanic convulsions, with short intervals of repose, acute sensibility, dreadful alarm, and finally death . Doses round 30 to 90 mg strychnine is toxic or possibly lethal, it equal to a bit over 1 g drug.
Syzygium aromaticum (Clove)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: Permanent damages on liver and kidneys.
Tabebuia chrysantha (Lapacho,
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy and breastfeed. Bloodclotting disorders. Intox.: Nausea, vomiting and in doses over 2-3 g hemorrhagia.
Tanacetum parthenium
Side eff.: Long term use: Stomatitis (freqence ca 2%). Upset stomach. Diarrhea or constipation. Bloating. Nausea. Nervousness and dizziness. Headache. Insomnia. Joint stiffness. Menstrual changes. Palpitations. Contraind.: Pregnancy and breastfeed. Interact.: Other anti-migraine agents (e.g ergotamine).may increase heart rate and BP because it has additive vasoconstrictive effects. Antiplatelet drugs (May increase risk of bleeding because feverfew inhibits platelet aggregation). NSAIDs reduces the effect of T.P. Anticoagulants. Intox.: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and rash.
Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy)
Side eff.: Abortive. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy or breastfeed. Peptic ulcers. Intox.: Lethal dose of volatile oil 15-30 g (commission E). Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdomninal pains and obstipation. Headache. Parestesia. Vertigo. Epileptic convulsions. Restlessness. Tremor. Convulsions and death due to respiratory paralysis.
Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion) Side eff.: Allergic reactions is described. G-I upset. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy.
Acute hepatitis. Intox.: Nausea. Colic. Diarrhea. Arrhytmias. Vertigo. No severe intoxication is knowned, neither for adults or children.
Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) SEE Thymus vulgaris.
Thymus vulgaris (Garden Thyme) Side eff.: Allergic reactions (thymol). Greenish urine (harmless). Sweatings.
Burning sensation in urination. Long term use of thymol can induce thyreotoxicosis. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy or breastfeed. Intox.: Lethaldose in 6 g thymol or more. Nausea, vomiting. Damages on kidneys and liver.
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)
Side eff.: Rash-like reactions. Muscle ache. Headache. Nausea. Vaginal bleeding. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Not in bleeding disorders. Not in breast-, uterine or ovarian cancer. Endometriosis. Uterine fibroids. Protein S deficiancy. Interact.: Anticoagulantia (due to coumarins). Other sexual hormone therapy. Intox.: Violent gastroenteritis with nausea and vomiting (saponins). No knowned risk for sapotoxism.
Trigonella foenum graecum
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Other sexual hormone therapy. Hypertension. Turnera diffusa (Damiana)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy or breastfeed. Intox.: Nausea and vomiting. Convulsions and other symtoms similar to rabies or strychnine poisining (after intake of 200 gram extract).
Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle)
Side eff.: Higher doses: G-I upset. Dermatitis. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy (last trimester). Interact.: Antihyperglycemics. Intox.: Intake of unpreparated drug or drug from older plants: Gastroenteritis. Burning sensation in the skin all over the body. Possibe with kidney damages and ischuria.
Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry)
Side eff.: Can cause diarrhea in some individuals. Contraind. N/a. Interact.: May interfere with iron absorption and other minerals when taken internally. Bilberry berries increases insulin production, caution should be taken by diabetics and cases of hypoglycemia) Intox.: N/a.
Valeriana officinalis (Valerian)
Side eff.: Same as in intoxication. Mildly addictive. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. In some individuals the drug can cause nervousness and insomnia (frequence 15-20%). Interact.: May intensify effects of barbiturates and other sedatives and CNS-depressants (benzodiazepines, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital, fentanyl, morphine etc.). Intox.: G-I upset with nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, nervousness and restlessness. Mydriasis. Headache. Severe intoxications is not knowned.
Veratrum album (White
Contraind.: Carefulness in pregnancy. Interact.: Digitalis and digitaloids. Antihypertensives. Cardiac stimulants. Parasympathomimetics. Intox.: Sore mouth, swelling of the tongue, gastric beat, and burning, severe vomiting, and often profuse diarrhoea. Vertigo, weakness, and tremors of the extremities, feeble pulse, loss of voice, dilatation of pupils, spasms of the ocular muscles, blindness, cold sweating, and mental disturbances, prolonged stupor and convulsions Verbascum ssp. (Mullein)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: N/a.
Verbena officinalis (Vervain)
Side eff.: Abortive. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Interact.: Other sexual hormone therapy. Para-sympathomimetics. Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: N/a.
Viburnum opulus (Cramp Bark
Side eff.: Dizziness. Can reduce labors under pregnancy. Salicylic acid hypersensitivity. Contraind.: Hypotonia. Interact.: Maybe with other sedatives and CNS-depressants. Intox.: Spastic reflex effects on nerves, urinal and uterus. Sweatings. Nervousness. Violent nausea. Vigorous diures. Severe intoxications in adults are rare.
Vinca ssp. (Periwinkle)
Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Hypotonia in braintumor with elevated intracranial pressure. Interact.: Anticholinergics. Intox.: Nausea. Vomiting. Hemorrhagia. Collaps. Damage on nerve, kidney and liver.
Viola tricolor (Pansy)
Side eff.: Salicylic acid hypersensitivity. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Intox.: Nausea and vomiting. Diarrhea. Any more severe intoxications is not knowned.
Viscum album (Mistletoe)
Side eff.: In subcut. injections a mild hyperemia. Contraind.: Not in pregnancy or breastfeed. Bradychardia. As injections not in leucemia and in organ transplant patients. Interact.: Digitalis and digitaloids. Antihypertensives. Immunosuppressants (decrease effectivness of therapy). Intox.: Acute stomach and intestinal irritation, diarrhea, mydriasis, muscular spasm, respiratory difficulties and slow pulse, cardiovascular collaps. Intravenous injections can cause damages on heart. In this cases death have occured after 10 hours. Also a case of anaphylactic chock is described (intr. inject.).
Vitex agnus castus (Chest Tree)
Side eff.: G-I upset. Irregularities in menstrual cycle. Contraind.: Carefulness in pregnancy. Interact.: Other sexual hormone therapy. Intox.: G-I upset.
Zingiber officinale (Ginger)
Side eff.: Allergic reactions (rare). Contraind.: Not in pregnancy. Carefulness in high fever, hemorrhagia, peptic ulcer and inflammatory skindiseases. Interact.: Anticoagulantia. Intox.: Nausea and vomiting. Risk for peptic ulcers. No severe intoxication are knowned.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates)
Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenza-prine (Flexeril),
fluvoxamine (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), olanzapine (Zyprexa),
pentazocine (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline (Slo-bid, Theo-Dur, others), zileuton
(Zyflo), zolmitriptan (Zomig), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates)
Some medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), diazepam (Valium), zileuton (Zyflo),
celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatin (Lescol), glipizide (Glucotrol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin),
irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), phenytoin (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifen (Nolvadex), tolbutamide
(Tolinase), torsemide (Demadex),
warfarin (Coumadin), estradiol (Estrace), tacrine (Cognex), verapamil (Calan), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) substrates)
Some medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), clozapine (Clozaril), codeine,
desipramine (Norpramin), donepezil (Aricept), fentanyl (Duragesic), flecainide (Tambocor), fluoxetine (Prozac),
meperidine (Demerol), methadone (Dolophine), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), olanzapine (Zyprexa), ondansetron
(Zofran), tramadol (Ultram), trazodone (Desyrel), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)
Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox),
fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) substrates)
Some medications that are changed by the liver include omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid), and
pantoprazole (Protonix); diazepam (Valium); carisoprodol (Soma); nelfinavir (Viracept); and others.

Source: http://janbanan.lb106.lbinternet.se/toxicology.pdf

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