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7th_unit 3a&3b study guide

Unit 3A & 3B: Study Guide
Compiled by your Table Captains

Chapter 3A:
The Neuron:
Cell body
-the cell life's support center
Dendrites- received messages from other cells
Axon- passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands
Myelin Sheath- covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
Terminal Branches- form junction with other cells
neural impulses(action potential)-electrical signal traveling down the axon
-A resting potential cell is positively charged in the chemical "soup"-At action potential something triggers change to cause sodium inside the cell (It takes 40mv to cause a reaction). -At refractory period the cell is recharging Neurotransmitters & Drugs
ACh: Acetycholine
-related to movement, learning and memory
-most highly implicated in alzheimer's disease
Drug: Curae(Antagonist)
Drug: Black Widow Spider Venom(Agonist)
Endorphins:-pain control(body makes naturally)Drug: Morephine(Agonist) - heightens your pain threshold & perception of pain. because of this body stops making as many endorphins. Withdrawal is experienced as a result Serotonin: -regulates mood, hunger, sleepLow levels-DepressionHigh levels-???Drug: Prozac(Agonist) GABA:-keeps brain under control-anxiety(keeps anxiety down)-inhibitory neurotransmitterDrug: Alcohol(Agonist) AP Psychology Ms. Berdelle Dopamine:-learning, attention, emotion(intense pleasure)High Levels:SchizophreniaLow Levels: Parkinsons DiseaseDrug: Thorazine(Antagonist)Drug: L-DOPA(Agonist) The Nervous System
Central Nervous System (CNS)
– connects the brain and spinal cord; allows blood flow to sex organs;
stimulates glucose release by liver (Interneurons)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – How the brain communicates with the body’s sensory receptors, muscles,
and glands (Sensory neurons)
Somatic Nervous System – (part of the PNS) controls voluntarily movement of our skeletal muscles (Motor
Autonomic Nervous System – (part of the PNS) controls involuntarily action of our glands and muscles of our
internal organs (glands, heartbeat, and digestion)
Sympathetic Nervous System – (part of the Autonomic Nervous System) arouses and expends energy;
accelerates heartbeat; dilates pupils; stimulates secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine; relaxes bladder;
stimulates gallbladder; stimulates ejaculation in males; inhibits digestion
Parasympathetic Nervous System – (part of the Autonomic Nervous System) conserves energy as it calms
your body; slows heartbeat; contracts bladder; contracts pupils; stimulates digestion
Chapter 3B: The Brain
Older Brain
-sensory switchboard(except smell)
Cerebellum:-"little brain"-balance & coordination Reticular Formation:-L hemisphere--->R side-R hemisphere--->L side-basic arousal (nonsexual)*if damaged=coma Medulla:-heart & breathing*if damaged=death Limbic System
-"little almond"
-intense emotion--->fear, aggression, empathy
Hypothalamus:-Fight-Flight-Feeding(hunger & thirst)-Sexual Behavior Corpus Callosum:-connects R & L hemisphere of brain


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